The Templars and the Sea

Alan Forey

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/OM.2020.011

Abstract


The sea was most important to the Templars for the transport of men and goods. Brothers and supplies had to be dispatched to the East, but the administration of the Order also necessitated numerous voyages, while Templars were further used as envoys by popes and rulers. Goods were sent not only to the Holy Land, and the Order did engage in some trading by sea. Templars used both merchant ships and their own vessels, and the latter carried pilgrims and merchants as well as brothers. The Order’s experience led kings and princes to employ Templars at times in matters relating to maritime transport. The Templar’s involvement in maritime warfare was limited and occurred mainly in the eastern Mediterranean against Christian as well as Muslim opponents. Only occasional references survive about Templars’ fighting at sea in the West. Templar ships appear to have been crewed mainly by non-Templars, but little is known about the numbers and specifications of the Order’s ships, and it is not clear whether the Templars were active in the construction of vessels.


Keywords


history; the Middle Ages; military orders; ships; Templars; trade; maritime warfare; crews

Full Text:

PDF

References


Primary sources:

Barcelona. Archivo de la Corona de Aragón. Cancillería Real, Cartas Reales Diplomáticas, Jaime II, cajas 137‒142: Templarios 68, 181, 185, 249, 334, 357, 403, 457, 618, 646.

Barcelona. Archivo de la Corona de Aragón. Cancillería Real, Pergaminos, Jaime II 1605, 2071, 2073, 2360.

Barcelona. Archivo de la Corona de Aragón. Cancillería Real, Registros 21, 25, 46, 53, 56, 63, 66, 73, 235, 251, 277.

London. The National Archives. E 358/18; E 358/19; E 358/20.

Accame, Paolo. Notizie e documenti inediti sui Templari e Gerosolimitani in Liguria. Finalborgo: Tipografia Rebbaglietti, 1902 (Source edition 4).

Acta Aragonensia. Vol. 3. Edited by Heinrich Finke. Berlin: Walther Rothschild, 1922.

Acta imperii inedita. Vol. 1. Urkunden und Briefe zur Geschichte des Kaiserreichs und des Königreichs Sizilien in den Jahren 1192 bis 1273. Edited by Eduard Winkelmann. Innsbruck: Wagner’sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 1880.

Actes de Famagouste du notaire génois Lamberto di Sambuceto (décembre 1299‒septembre 1300). Edited by Michel Balard, William Duba, and Chris Schabel. Nicosia: Centre de Recherche Scientifique, 2012.

Actes relatifs à la principauté de Morée, 1289‒1300. Edited by Charles Perrat and Jean Longnon. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1967.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Edited by Michael Swanton. London: Phoenix, 2000.

Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de’ suoi continuatori, dal MXCIX al MCCXCII. Vol. 5. Edited by Luigi T. Belgrano. Genoa: Istituto sordi-muti, 1929.

Belgrano, Luigi T. “Une charte de nolis de S. Louis.” Archives de l’Orient latin 2, no. 2 (1884): 231‒236.

Bini, Telesforo. “Dei Tempieri e del loro processo in Toscana.” Atti della Reale Accademia Lucchese di Scienze, Lettere, ed Arti 13 (1845): 395‒506 (Source edition no. 5).

Brătianu, Georges I. “Le conseil du roi Charles: Essai sur l’internationale chrétienne et les nationalités à la fin du moyen âge.” Revue historique du sud-est européen 19 (1942): 291‒361.

Bullarium Cyprium: Papal Letters concerning Cyprus, 1196‒1314. Vol. 2. Edited by Christopher Schabel. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 2010.

Bulst-Thiele, Marie L. Sacrae domus militiae Templi Hierosolymitani magistri: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Templerordens 1118/19‒1314. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1974 (Source edition no. 8).

Calendar of the Close Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Edward I. Vol. 3. A.D. 1288‒1296. Edited by William H. Stevenson and C.H. Woodruff. London: HMSO, 1904.

Calendar of the Close Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Edward I. Vol. 5. A.D. 1302‒1307. Edited by William H. Stevenson and Cyril T. Flower. London: HMSO, 1908.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry III. Vol. 3. A.D. 1232‒1247. Edited by John G. Black and Robert F. Isaacson. London: HMSO, 1906.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry III. Vol. 4. A.D. 1247‒1258. Edited by John G. Black and Robert F. Isaacson. London: HMSO, 1908.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry III. Vol. 5. A.D. 1258‒1266. Edited by John G. Black and Robert F. Isaacson. London: HMSO, 1910.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry III. Vol. 6. A.D. 1266‒1272. Edited by John G. Black and Robert F. Isaacson. London: HMSO, 1913.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Edward I: A.D. 1281‒1292. Edited by John G. Black, Robert F. Isaacson, and G.J. Morris. London: HMSO, 1893.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Edward I: A.D. 1301‒1307. Edited by John G. Black. London: HMSO, 1898.

Campi, Pietro M. Dell’historia ecclesiastica di Piacenza. Vol. 2. Piacenza: Giovanni Bazachi, 1651 (Source edition no. 124).

Cartulaire générale de l’ordre des Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem. Vol. 2. Edited by Joseph Delaville Le Roulx. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1897.

Cartulaire générale de l’ordre des Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem. Vol. 3. Edited by Joseph Delaville Le Roulx. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1899.

Cartulaire générale de l’ordre des Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem. Vol. 4. Edited by Joseph Delaville Le Roulx. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1906.

The Catalan Rule of the Templars: A Critical Edition and English Translation from Barcelona, Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, Cartas Reales, MS 3344. Edited and translated by Judi M. Upton-Ward. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2003.

“Chronique de l’île de Chypre, par Florio Bustron.” Edited by René de Mas Latrie. In Melanges historiques. Vol. 5, 1‒459. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1886.

Chroniques d’Amadi et de Strambaldi. Edited by René de Mas Latrie. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1891.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. L’ordre du Temple en Terre Sainte et à Chypre au XIIIe siècle. Vol. 2. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 2005 (Source editions nos. 1, 14, 19).

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1227‒1231. Edited by Charles Trice Martin and Alfred E. Stamp. London: HMSO, 1902.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1231‒1234. Edited by Charles Trice Martin and Alfred E. Stamp. London: HMSO, 1905.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1234‒1237. Edited by Charles Trice Martin, Robert F. Isaacson, and Anthony S. Maskelyne. London: HMSO, 1908.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1237‒1242. Edited by Robert F. Isaacson and Anthony S. Maskelyne. London: HMSO, 1911.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1242‒1247. Edited by Ernest G. Atkinson and Robert F. Isaacson. London: HMSO, 1916.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1251‒1253. Edited by Percival V. Davies, Alfred E. Stamp, and Kenneth H. Ledward. London: HMSO, 1927.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1254‒1256. Edited by Alfred E. Stamp and Kenneth H. Ledward. London: HMSO, 1931.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1256‒1259. Edited by Kenneth H. Ledward. London: HMSO, 1932.

Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A D. 1259‒1261. Edited by Alfred E. Stamp and Kenneth H. Ledward. London: HMSO, 1934.

Codice diplomatico dei re aragonesi di Sicilia, Pietro I, Giacomo, Federico II, Pietro II e Ludovico dalla rivoluzione siciliana de 1282 sino al 1355. Vol. 1. Anni 1282‒1290. Edited by Giuseppe La Mantia. Palermo: Boccone del Povero, 1917.

Codice diplomatico sui rapporti veneto-napoletani durante il regno di Carlo d’Angiò. Edited by Nicola Nicolini. Rome: Istituto storico italiano per il Medio Evo, 1965.

Il compasso da navegare: opera italiana della meta del secolo XIII. Edited by Bacchisio R. Motzo. Cagliari: Università, 1947.

Il Corpus normativo templare: Edizione dei testi romanzi con traduzione e commento in italiano. Edited by Giovanni Amatuccio. Galatina: Congedo Editore, 2009.

Correspondance administrative d’Alfonse de Poitiers. Vol. 1. Edited by Auguste Molinier. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1894.

Correspondance administrative d’Alfonse de Poitiers. Vol. 2. Edited by Auguste Molinier. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1900.

Cronaca del Templare di Tiro (1243‒1314): La caduta degli stati crociati nel racconto di un testimone oculare. Edited by Laura Minervini. Naples: Liguore Editore, 2000.

De passagiis in Terram Sanctam. Edited by Georg M. Thomas. Venice: F. Ongania, 1879.

De rebus regni Siciliae (9 settembre 1282 ‒ 26 agosto 1283): Documenti inediti dall’Archivio della Corona d’Aragona. Edited by Giuseppe Silvestri. Palermo: “Lo Statuto,” 1882.

Desimoni, Cornelio. “Actes passés à Famagouste de 1299 à 1301 devant le notaire génois Lamberto di Sambuceto.” Archives de l’Orient latin 2, no. 2 (1884): 3‒120.

Desimoni, Cornelio. “Actes passés en 1271, 1274 et 1279 à L’Aïas (Petite Arménie) et à Beyrouth par devant des notaires génois.” Archives de l’Orient latin 1 (1881): 434‒534.

Desimoni, Cornelio. “Quatre titres des propriétés des Génois à Acre et à Tyre.” Archives de l’Orient latin 2, no. 2 (1884): 213‒230.

Diplomatari de l’Orient català. Edited by Antoni Rubio i Lluch. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2001.

Diplomatario andaluz de Alfonso X. Edited by Manuel González Jiménez. Seville: El Monte, Caja de Huelva y Sevilla, 1991.

Documenti inediti riguardanti le due crociate di san Ludovico IX. Edited by Luigi T. Belgrano. Genoa: Luigi Beuf, 1859.

Documenti tratti dai registri vaticani (da Innocenzo III a Nicola IV). Edited by Domenico Vendola. Trani: Vecchi, 1940.

Documentos de Jaime I de Aragon. Vol. 2. 1237‒1250. Edited by Ambrosio Huici Miranda and María D. Cabanes Pecourt. Valencia: Anubar Ediciones, 1976.

Documentos de Nicolás III (1277‒1280) referentes a España. Edited by Santiago Domínguez Sánchez. León: Universidad de León, 1999.

Documents Illustrative of English History in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Edited by Henry Cole. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1844.

Documents inédits sur le commerce de Marseille au moyen âge. Vol. 1. Edited by Louis Blancard. Marseille: Barlatier-Feissart, 1884.

Documents inédits sur le commerce de Marseille au moyen âge. Vol. 2. Edited by Louis Blancard. Marseille: Barlatier-Feissart, 1885.

Epistolae saeculi XIII e regestis pontificum Romanorum. Vol. 1. Edited by Carl Rodenburg. Berlin: Weidmann, 1883.

Fernández de Navarrete, Martín. “Disertación histórica sobre la parte que tuveriéron les españoles en la guerras de ultramar ó de las cruzadas.” Memorias de la Real Academia de la Historia 5 (1817): 37‒204 (Source edition no. 16).

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. La frontera amb l’Islam en el segle XIV: Cristians i Sarraïns al País Valencià. Barcelona: CSIC, 1988 (Source edition no. 19).

Foedera, conventiones, litterae et cuiuscumque generis acta publica. Vol. 1. Nos. 1‒2. Edited by Thomas Rymer. London: Eyre and Strahan, 1816.

Forey, Alan J. “Letters of the Last Two Templar Masters.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 45 (2001): 145‒171 (Source editions nos. 2 and 9).

Formoy, Beryl E. R. “A Maritime Indenture of 1212.” English Historical Review 41 (1926): 556‒559.

Fueros y privilegios de Alfonso X el Sabio al reino de Murcia. Edited by Juan Torres Fontes. Murcia: Academia Alfonso X el Sabio, 1973.

Gallia Christiana Novissima. Vol. 5. Edited by Joseph H. Albanès and Ulysse Chevalier. Valence: Imprimerie Valentinoise, 1911.

Gesta Henrici Secundi. Vol. 2. Edited by William Stubbs. Rolls Series 49. London: Longman, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1867.

Housley, Norman. “Charles II of Naples and the Kingdom of Jerusalem.” Byzantion 54 (1984): 527‒535 (Source edition no. 1).

Humbert of Romans. De predicatione crucis. Edited by Valentin Portnykh. CCCM 279. Turnhout: Brepols, 2018.

Le imbreviature del notaio Adamo de Citella a Palermo (1o Registro: 1286‒1287). Edited by Pietro Burgarella. Rome: Centro di Ricirca, 1981.

Jacques de Vitry. Lettres de la cinquième croisade. Edited by Robert B. C. Huygens. Translated by Gaston Duchet-Suchaux. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Joinville. Histoire de Saint Louis. Edited by Natalis de Wailly. Paris: Renouard, 1868.

Josserand, Philippe. Jacques de Molay: Le dernier grand-maître des Templiers. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2019 (Source editions nos. 3, 4).

Layettes du Trésor des Chartes. Vol. 2. Edited by Alexandre Teulet. Paris: H. Plon, 1866.

I Libri iurium della Repubblica di Genova. Vol. 1. No. 5. Edited by Elisabetta Madia. Genoa: Ministerio per i beni culturali e ambientali, 1999.

MacNiocaill, Gearóid. “Documents relating to the Suppression of the Templars in Ireland.” Analecta Hibernica 24 (1967): 183‒226.

Makrizi. Histoire des sultans mamlouks, de l’Egypte. Vol. 2. No. 2. Translated by Etienne M. Quatremère. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1845.

Marino Sanudo. Liber secretorum fidelium crucis super Terrae Sanctae recuperatione et conservatione. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Mas Latrie de, Louis. Histoire de l’île de Chypre sous le règne des princes de la maison de Lusignan. Vol. 2. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1852.

Matthaeus Westmonasteriensis. Flores historiarum. Vol. 2. A.D. 1067 – A.D. 1264. Edited by Henry R. Luard. Rolls Series 95. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1890.

Notai genovesi in oltremare: atti rogati a Cipro da Lamberto di Sambuceto (gennaio‒agosto 1302). Edited by Romeo Pavoni. Genoa: Università di Genova, 1987.

Notai genovesi in oltremare: atti rogati a Cipro da Lamberto di Sambuceto (3 luglio 1300 ‒ 3 agosto 1301). Edited by Valeria Polonio. Genoa: Università di Genova, 1982.

Notai genovesi in oltremare: atti rogati a Cipro: Lamberto di Sambuceto (31 marzo 1304 ‒ 19 luglio 1305, 4 gennaio ‒ 12 luglio 1307), Giovanni di Rocha (3 agosto 1308‒14 marzo 1310). Edited by Michel Balard. Genoa: Università di Genova, 1984.

Notai genovesi in oltremare: atti rogati a Laiazzo da Federico di Piazzalunga (1274) e Pietro di Bargone (1277, 1279). Vol. 2. Edited by Laura Balletto. Genoa: Università di Genova, 1989.

Oliver of Paderborn. “Historia Damiatina”. In Die Schriften des Kölner Domscholasters, späteren Bischofs von Paderborn und Kardinalbischofs von S. Sabina Oliverus, edited by Hermann Hoogeweg, 159‒280. Tübingen: Litterarischer Verein in Stuttgart, 1894.

Papsttum und Untergang des Templerordens. Vol. 2. Quellen. Edited by Heinrich Finke. Münster: Aschendorffsche Buchhandlung, 1907.

Papsturkunden für Kirchen im Heiligen Lande. Edited by Rudolf Hiestand. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1985.

Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1216‒1225. Edited by John G. Black and Charles Trice Martin. London: HMSO, 1901.

Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office: A.D. 1225‒1232. Edited by John G. Black and Charles Trice Martin. London: HMSO, 1903.

Proceedings against the Templars in the British Isles. Vol. 1. Edited by Helen J. Nicholson. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

Le Procès des Templiers. Vol. 1. Edited by Jules Michelet. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1841.

Le Procès des Templiers. Vol. 2. Edited by Jules Michelet. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1851.

Projets de croisade (v. 1290 ‒ v. 1330). Edited by Jacques Paviot. Documents relatifs à l’histoire des croisades 20. Paris: Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 2008.

Les quatre grans croniques. Vol. 1. Llibre dels feits del rei En Jaume. Edited by Ferran Soldevila. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2007.

Les quatre grans cròniques. Vol. 2. Crònica de Bernat Desclot. Edited by Ferran Soldevila. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2008.

Les quatre grans cròniques. Vol. 3. Crònica de Ramon Muntaner. Edited by Ferran Soldevila. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2011.

Quinti belli sacri scriptores minores. Edited by Reinhold Röhricht. Geneva: J.-G. Fick, 1879.

Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France. Vol. 17. Edited by Martin Bouquet and Léopold Delisle. Paris: Palmé, 1878.

Regestum Clementis papae V. Vol. 1. Rome: Typographia Vaticana, 1885.

Die Register Innocenz’ III. Vol. 7. Edited by Othmar Hageneder, Andrea Sommerlechner, and Herwig Weigl. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1997.

Les Registres de Boniface VIII. Vol. 1. Edited by Georges Digard, Maurice Faucon, and Antoine Thomas. Paris: Thorin, 1884.

Les Registres de Clément IV. Edited by Edouard Jordan. Paris: Thorin et Fils/Boccard, 1893‒1945.

Les Registres de Grégoire IX. Vol. 2. Edited by Lucien Auvray. Paris: Fontemoing, 1907.

Les Registres de Grégoire X. Edited by Jean Guiraud. Paris: Thorin et Fils, 1892‒1960.

Les Registres de Nicolas III. Edited by Jules Gay. Paris: Thorin et Fils, 1898‒1938.

Les Registres de Nicolas IV. Edited by Ernest Langlois. Paris: Fontemoing, 1886‒1893.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 2. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1951.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 3. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1951.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 6. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1954.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 7. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1957.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 9. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1957.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 11. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1958.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 19. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1964.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 35. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1985.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 40. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1993.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 42, no. 2. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1995.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 44, no. 2. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 1999.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 45. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 2000.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 47. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 2003.

I Registri della cancelleria angioina. Vol. 48. Edited by Riccardo Filangieri. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana, 2005.

La Règle du Temple. Edited by Henri de Curzon. Paris: Renouard, 1886.

Repartimiento de Sevilla. Vol. 2. Edited by Julio González. Madrid: CSIC, 1951.

Riant, Paul. “Six lettres relatives aux croisades.” Archives de l’Orient latin 1 (1881): 383‒392.

Roger of Hoveden. Chronica. Vol. 2. Edited by William Stubbs. Rolls Series 51. London: Longman and Green, 1869.

Roger of Hoveden. Chronica. Vol. 3. Edited by William Stubbs. Rolls Series 51. London: Longman and Trübner, 1870.

Roger of Hoveden. Chronica. Vol. 4. Edited by William Stubbs. Rolls Series 51. London: Longman and Trübner, 1871.

Rôles gascons. Vol. 4. Edited by Michel Francisque and Charles Bémont. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1885.

Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum. Vol. 1. Edited by Thomas Duffy. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1833.

Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum. Vol. 2. Edited by Thomas Duffy. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1844.

Rotuli Litterarum Patentium. Edited by Thomas Duffy. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1835.

The Rule of the Templars: The French Text of the Rule of the Order of the Knights Templar. Translated by Judi Upton-Ward. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1992.

Els Templers de les terres de l’Ebre (Tortosa): De Jaume I fins a l’abolició de l’orde (1213‒1312). Vol. 2. Edited by Laureà Pagarolas i Sabaté. Tarragona: Diputació de Tarragona, 1999.

The Trial of the Templars in Cyprus: A Complete English Edition. Translated by Anne Gilmour-Bryson. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Der Untergang des Templer-Ordens. Vol. 2. Edited by Konrad Schottmüller. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler, 1887.

Vic, Claude de, and Joseph Vaissete. Histoire générale de Languedoc. Vol. 8. Toulouse: Edouard Privat, 1879.

Willelmi Tyrensis Archiepiscopi Chronicon. Vol. 1. Edited by Robert B. C. Huygens. Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis (CCCM) 63. Turnhout: Brepols, 1986.

Secondary sources:

Ayala Martínez, Carlos de. Las órdenes militares hispánicas en la edad media (siglos XII‒XV). Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2003.

Balard, Michel. “Les transports maritimes génois vers la Terre Sainte.” In I comuni italiani nel regno crociato di Gerusalemme, edited by Gabriella Airaldi and Benjamin Z. Kedar, 141‒174. Genoa: Università de Genova, 1986.

Balard, Michel. “Les transports des occidentaux vers les colonies du Levant au moyen âge.” In Maritime Aspects of Migration, edited by Klaus Friedland, 3‒25. Cologne: Böhlau, 1989.

Barber, Malcolm. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Bastard de Péré, René. “Navires mediterranéens du temps de Saint Louis.” Revue d’histoire économique et sociale 50 (1972): 327‒356.

Blaauw, William H. “Sadelescombe and Shipley, the Preceptories of the Knights Templars in Sussex.” Sussex Archaeological Collections relating to the History and Antiquities of the County 9 (1857): 227‒274.

Boas, Adrian J. Archaeology of the Military Orders: A Survey of the Urban Centres, Rural Settlement, and Castles of the Military Orders in the Latin East (c. 1120‒1291). Abingdon: Routledge, 2006.

Bonnin, Jean-Claude. “Les Templiers et la mer: l’exemple de La Rochelle.” In La commanderie: Institution des ordres militaires dans l’Occident médiéval, edited by Anthony Luttrell and León Pressouyre, 307‒315. Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 2002.

Bramato, Fulvio. Storia dell’ordine dei Templari in Italia. Vol. 2. Le Inquisizioni; Le Fonti. Rome: Atanòr, 1994.

Brett, Edward T. Humbert of Romans: His Life and Views of Thirteenth-Century Society. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1984.

Bronstein, Judith. “The Hospitallers: From Land to Sea – an Examination of the Hospitallers’ Naval Activities in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Medieval History Journal 22 (2019): 53‒91.

Bronstein, Judith. The Hospitallers in the Holy Land: Financing the Latin East, 1187‒1274. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005.

Bronstein, Judith, Edna J. Stern, and Elisabeth Yehuda. “Franks, Locals and Sugar Cane: A Case Study of Cultural Interaction in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.” Journal of Medieval History 45, no. 3 (2019): 316‒330.

Brooks, Frederick W. “William de Wrotham and the Office of Keeper of the King’s Ports and Galleys.” English Historical Review 40 (1925): 570‒579.

Burgtorf, Jochen. The Central Convent of Hospitallers and Templars: History, Organization, and Personnel. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

Byrne, Eugene. Genoese Shipping in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Cambridge, Mass.: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1930.

Carabellese, Francesco. Carlo d’Angiò nei rapporti politici e commerciali con Venezia e l’Oriente. Bari: Vecchi, 1911.

Carraz, Damien. “ ‘Causa defendende et extollende christianitatis:’ La vocation maritime des ordres militaires en Provence (XIIe‒XIIIe siècles).” In Les ordres militaires et la mer, edited by Michel Balard, 21‒46. Paris: Comité des traveaux historiques et scientifiques, 2009.

Carraz, Damien. L’ordre du Temple dans la basse vallée du Rhône (1124‒1312): ordres militaires, croisades et sociétés méridionales. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 2005.

Carraz, Damien. Les Templiers et la guerre. Clermont-Ferrand: Lemme, 2012.

Chevalier, Marie-Anna. “Les ordres militaires et la mer en Arménie cilicienne (milieu du XIIe‒fin XIVe siècle).” In Les ordres militaires et la mer, edited by Michel Balard, 61‒78. Paris: Comité des traveaux historiques et scientifiques, 2009.

Chevalier, Marie-Anna. Les ordres religieux-militaires en Arménie cilicienne. Paris: Geuthner, 2009.

Cingolani, Stefano M. Historiografia, propaganda i comunicació al segle XIII: Bernat Desclot i les dues redaccions de la seva crònica. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2006.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. “La marine du Temple dans l’Orient des croisades.” In Les ordres militaires et la mer, edited by Michel Balard, 47‒59. Paris: Comité des traveaux historiques et scientifiques, 2009.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. L’ordre du Temple dans l’Orient des croisades. Brussels: De Broek, 2014.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. L’ordre du Temple en Terre Sainte et à Chypre au XIIIe siècle. Vol. 1. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 2005.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. L’ordre du Temple en Terre Sainte et à Chypre au XIIIe siècle. Vol. 3. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 2005.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. “Quelques réflexions sur les activités navales des ordres militaires.” In Les ordres militaires et la mer, edited by Michel Balard, 9‒19. Paris: Comité des traveaux historiques et scientifiques, 2009.

Claverie, Pierre-Vincent. “Les Templiers informateurs de l’Occident à travers leurs correspondance.” In As ordens militares: Freires, guerreiros, cavaleiros. Vol. 2, edited by Isabel C. F. Fernandes, 715‒735. Palmela: Município de Palmela, 2012.

Coureas, Nicholas. The Latin Church in Cyprus 1195‒1312. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997.

Coureas, Nicholas. “The Role of the Templars and the Hospitallers in the Movement of Commodities involving Cyprus, 1291‒1312.” In The Experience of Crusading. Vol. 2. Defining the Crusader Kingdom, edited by Peter Edbury and Jonathan Phillips, 257‒274. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Crawford, Paul. “The Military Orders and the Last Decade of the Thirteenth Century.” Epeterida 33 (2007): 77‒97.

Delaville Le Roulx, Joseph. Les Hospitaliers à Rhodes jusqu’à la mort de Philibert de Naillac (1310‒1421). Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1913.

Demurger, Alain. “Between Barcelona and Cyprus: The Travels of Berenguer of Cardona, Templar Master of Aragon and Catalonia (1300‒1).” In International Mobility in the Military Orders (Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries): Travelling on Christ’s Business, edited by Jochen Burgtorf and Helen J. Nicholson, 65‒74. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2006.

Demurger, Alain. Jacques de Molay: Le crépuscule des Templiers. Paris: Payot et Rivages, 2002.

Demurger, Alain. “Outre-mer: le passage des Templiers en Orient d’après les dépositions du procès.” In Chemins d’outre-mer: Etudes d’histoire sur la Mediterranée médiévale offertes à Michel Balard. Vol. 1, edited by Damien Coulon a.o., 217‒230. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2004.

Demurger, Alain. Les Templiers: Une chevalerie chrétienne au moyen âge. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2005.

Dufourcq, Charles-Emmanuel. L’Espagne catalane et le Maghrib au XIIIe et XIVe siècles. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966.

Dufourcq, Charles-Emmanuel. La vie quotidienne dans les ports méditerranéens au moyen âge (Provence ‒ Languedoc ‒ Catalogne). Paris: Hachette, 1975.

Edbury, Peter W. The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191‒1374. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Favreau-Lilie, Marie-Luise. Die Italiener im Heiligen Land vom ersten Kreuzzug bis zum Tode Heinrichs von Champagne (1098‒1197). Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1989.

Favreau-Lilie, Marie-Luise. “The Military Orders and the Escape of the Christian Population from the Holy Land in 1291.” Journal of Medieval History 19 (1993): 201‒227.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. “Catalan Commerce in the Late Middle Ages.” Catalan Historical Review 5 (2012): 29‒65.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. “Una família de Navigants: Els Marquet.” In El “Llibre del Consell” de la ciutat de Barcelona: Segle XV: les eleccions municipals, edited by Carme Battle i Gallart a.o., 136‒267. Barcelona, CSIC, 2007.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. “Les flottes catalanes, XIIe‒XVe siècles.” In The Sea in History: The Medieval World: La mer dans l’histoire: Le moyen âge, edited by Michel Balard, 281‒294. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2017.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. La frontera amb l’Islam en el segle XIV: Cristians i Sarraïns al País Valencià. Barcelona: CSIC, 1988.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. “La guerra en cors amb els països musulmans occidentals en els primers anys del regnat de Jaume II (1291‒1309).” Anuario de estudios medievales 38 (2008): 831‒865.

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria T. “Incidència del cors en les relacions catalanes amb l’Orient (segles XIII‒XV).” In Els Catalans a la Mediterrània oriental a l’edat mitjana, edited by Maria T. Ferrer i Mallol, 259‒307. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2003.

Forey, Alan J. “The Career of a Templar: Peter of St Just.” In Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, presented to Malcolm Barber, edited by Norman Housley, 183‒194. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

Forey, Alan J. “Letters of the Last Two Templar Masters.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 45 (2001): 145‒171.

Forey, Alan J. “Military Orders and Secular Warfare in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Viator 24 (1993): 79‒100.

Forey, Alan J. “Royal and Papal Interference in the Dispatch of Supplies to the East by the Military Orders in the Later Thirteenth Century.” In The Military Orders. Vol. 5, Politics and Power, edited by Peter W. Edbury, 95‒102. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012.

Forey, Alan J. The Templars in the Corona de Aragón. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Forey, Alan J. “Towards a Profile of the Templars in the Early Fourteenth Century.” In The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick, edited by Malcom Barber, 196‒204. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1994.

García-Guijarro Ramos, Luis. “La orden del Temple y el mar.” In Entre Deus e o rei: o mundo das ordens militares. Vol. 2, edited by Isabel Cristina F. Fernandes, 733‒743. Palmela: Município de Palmela, 2018.

Harvey, Barbara. “Monastic Diet, XIIIth‒XVIth Centuries: Problems and Perspectives.” In Alimentazione e nutrizione secc. XIII‒XVIII, edited by Simonetta Cavaciocchi, 611‒641. Florence: Le Monnier, 1997.

Holt, Peter M. Early Mamluk Diplomacy (1260‒1290): Treaties of Baybars and Qalāwūn with Christian Rulers. Leiden: Brill, 1995.

Houben, Hubert. “Between Sicily and Jerusalem: The Teutonic Knights in the Mediterranean (Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries).” In Islands and Military Orders, c. 1291 ‒ c. 1798, edited by Emanuel Buttigieg and Simon Phillips, 155‒163. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

Jacoby, David. “Hospitaller Ships and Transportation across the Mediterranean.” In The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean, and Europe: Festschrift for Anthony Luttrell, edited by Karl Borchardt, Nikolas Jaspert, and Helen J. Nicholson, 57‒72. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

Jefferson, Joseph M. “The Templar Lands in Lincolnshire in the Early Fourteenth Century.” PhD. Dissertation, University of Nottingham, 2016.

Johns, Cedric N. “Guide to ‘Atlit: the Crusader castle, town and surroundings with the prehistoric caves at Wadi el Maghara.” In id., Pilgrims’ Castle (‘Atlit), David’s Tower (Jerusalem) and Qal’at ar-Rabad (‘Ajlun): three Middle Eastern castles from the time of the Crusades, edited by Denys Pringle, 1‒98. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997.

Josserand, Philippe. Jacques de Molay: Le dernier grand-maître des Templiers. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2019.

Leopold, Antony. How to recover the Holy Land: the Crusade Proposals of the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

Luttrell, Anthony. “The Earliest Documents on the Hospitaller ʻCorsoʼ at Rhodes, 1413 and 1416.” Mediterranean Historical Review 10 (1995): 177‒188.

Luttrell, Anthony. “The Servitudo Marina at Rhodes: 1306‒1462”. In id., The hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West 1291‒1440. Collected studies, part 4, 50‒56. Variorum collected studies series 77, London: Ashgate Variorum, 1978.

Major, Balázs. “Observations on Crusader Settlements betwen the Nahr al-Kabîr and the Nahr as-Sinn.” In Le comté de Tripoli: État multiculturel et multiconfessionel (1102‒1289), edited by Gérard Dédéyan and Karam Rizk, 119‒140. Paris: Geuthner, 2010.

Masiá de Ros, Angeles. La Corona de Aragón y los estados del Norte de África: Política de Jaime II y Alfonso IV en Egipto, Ifriquía y Tremecén. Barcelona: Instituto Español de Estudios Mediterráneos, 1951.

Menache, Sophia. “Papal Attempts at a Commercial Boycott of the Muslims in the Crusader Period.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 63 (2012): 236‒259.

Minieri Riccio, Camillo. Genealogia di Carlo I di Angiò: Prima generazione. Naples: Vicenzo Priggiobra, 1857.

Miret y Sans, Joaquím. Les cases de Templers y Hospitalers en Catalunya. Barcelona: Casa Provincial de Caritat, 1910.

Mollat, Michel. “Le ‘Passage’ de Saint Louis à Tunis: sa place dans l’histoire des croisades.” Revue d’histoire économique et sociale 50 (1972): 289‒303.

Mott, Lawrence V. “Serving in the Fleet: Crews and Recruitment Issues in the Catalan-Aragonese Fleets during the War of Sicilian Vespers (1282‒1302).” Medieval Encounters 13, no. 1 (2007): 56‒77.

Nicholson, Helen J. The Everyday Life of the Templars: The Knights Templar at Home. Stroud: Fonthill, 2017.

Nicholson, Helen J. “Holy Warriors, Worldly War: Military Religious Orders and Secular Conflict.” Journal of Medieval Military History 17 (2019): 61‒79.

Nicholson, Helen J. “The Hospitallers’ and Templars’ Involvement in Warfare on the Frontiers of the British Isles in the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries.” Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 17 (2012): 105‒119.

Nicholson, Helen J. “The Military Orders and the Kings of England in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” In From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095‒1500, edited by Alan V. Murray, 203‒218. Turnhout: Brepols, 1998.

Piana, Mathias. “A Bulwark never conquered: The Fortifications of the Templar Citadel of Tortosa on the Syrian Coast.” In Archaeology and Architecture of the Military Orders, edited by Mathias Piana and Christer Carlsson, 133‒171. Farmham: Ashgate, 2014.

Porëe, Brigitte. “Les moulins et fabriques à sucre de Palestine.” In Cyprus and the Crusades, edited by Nicholas Coureas and Jonathan Riley-Smith, 377‒510. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 1995.

Pryor, John H. “ ʻIn subsidium Terrae Sanctae:ʼ Exports of Foodstuffs and War Materials from the Kingdom of Sicily to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1265‒1284.” Asian and African Studies 22 (1988): 127‒146.

Pryor, John H. “The Naval Architecture of Crusade Transport Ships: A Reconstruction of some Archetypes for Round-hulled Sailing Ships.” The Mariners’ Mirror 70 (1984): 171‒219, 275‒292, 363‒386.

Pryor, John H. “The Transportation of Horses by Sea during the Era of the Crusades: Eighth Century to 1285 A.D.” The Mariners’ Mirror 68 (1982): 9‒27, 103‒125.

Richard, Jean. “Les Templiers et les Hospitaliers en Bourgogne et en Champagne méridionale (XIIe‒XIIIe siècles).” In Die geistlichen Ritterorden Europas, edited by Josef Fleckenstein and Manfred Hellmann, 231‒242. Vorträge und Forschungen XXVI. Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1980.

Richard, Jean. “Le transport outre-mer des croisés et des pèlerins (XIIe‒XVe siècles).” In Maritime Aspects of Migration, edited by Klaus Friedland, 27‒44. Cologne: Böhlau, 1989.

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Knights Hospitaller in the Levant, c. 1070‒1309. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Rose, Susan. England’s Medieval Navy, 1066‒1509: Ships, Men and Warfare. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing, 2013.

Sarnowsky, Jürgen. “The Military Orders and their Navies.” In The Military Orders. Vol. 4, On Land and by Sea, edited by Judi Upton-Ward, 41‒56. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

Sarnowsky, Jürgen. “The Ships of the Knights of St John,” in The Sea in History: The Medieval World: La mer dans l’histoire: Le moyen âge, edited by Michel Balard, 357‒368. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2017.

Stern, Edna J., Nimrod Getzov, Anastasia Shapiro, and Howard Smithline. “Sugar Production in the ‘Akko Plain from the Fatimid to the Early Ottoman Periods.” In The Origins of the Sugar Industry and the Transmission of Ancient Greek and Medieval Arab Science and Technology from the Near East to Europe, edited by Konstantinos D. Politis, 79‒112. Athens: National and Kapodistriako University of Athens, 2015.

Throop, Palmer A. Criticism of the Crusade: A Study of Public Opinion and Crusade Propaganda. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1940.

Toomaspoeg, Kristjan. “Carrefour de la Méditerrannée et arrière pays de la croisade: les ordres militaires et la mer au royaume de Sicile.” In Les ordres militaires et la mer, edited by Michel Balard, 103‒110. Paris: Comité des traveaux historiques et scientifiques, 2009.

Torres Fontes, Juan. “La orden de Santa María de España.” Miscelánea Medieval Murciana 3 (1977): 73‒118.

Yver, Georges. Le commerce et les marchands dans l’Italie méridionale au XIIIe et au XIVe siècle. Paris: Fontemoing, 1903.








ISSN (print) 0867-2008
ISSN (online) 2391-7512

Partnerzy platformy czasopism