https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/issue/feed Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 2020-12-29T23:45:46+01:00 Roman Czaja rc@umk.pl Open Journal Systems <p>Yearbook devoted to the history of military orders. In keeping with tradition, each volume includes a definite thematic scope, which refers to the subject of a conference from the "Ordines Militares" series. Moreover, articles, polemics, research surveys, source monographs and reviews concerning the history of military orders are published there in English, German and French.</p><p>The journal is available in paper and electronic formats. Both formats are identical and are published at the same time. </p><p>Since 2019, "Ordines Militares..." has been indexed in the Scopus list of journals.</p> https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/32586 Cover and Table of Contents 2020-12-29T23:45:35+01:00 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders annam@umk.pl 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.001 The Challenges of Medieval Communication: The Military Orders 2020-12-29T23:36:57+01:00 Sophia Menache smenache@univ.haifa.ac.il <p>It is the thesis of this study that research into medieval communication, its audiences, purposes, and channels, plays a central role in a better understanding of the crusades. The Military Orders played a significant role in communication developments in Europe and the Levant, because their international character and the fact that their own survival relied on their ability to exchange accurate information in the shortest period. The significant increase in letter exchange, the acceleration of information transmission, and the new awareness of delivering reliable information in the shortest period, all these developments reflect the decisive role of the Military Orders in the emergence of a more communication-oriented society at the Late Middle Ages.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sophia Menache https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.002 Kommunikationsformen im Zentralkonvent der Templer und Johanniter 2020-12-29T23:36:57+01:00 Jochen Burgtorf jburgtorf@fullerton.edu <p align="left"><strong>Forms of Communication in the Central Convent of Templars and Hospitallers</strong></p><p>The central convent of Templars and Hospitallers was the motherhouse of communities of professed religious. Its forms of communication were based on biblical principles, monastic models, and the specific requirements of their particular charitable, military, and economic pursuits; and they were challenged by the fact that its members hailed from various regions of Latin Christendom and spoke different languages. While the binaries advocated in certain theories of communication (verbal-nonverbal, formal-informal, public-private, etc.) provide useful paradigms, diverse forms of communication in the central convent were interconnected and served to reinforce each other. Covering the twelfth to early fourteenth centuries and based primarily on the Orders’ normative texts, this study focuses on the central convent’s spaces, namely, the church, the refectory, the chapter-hall, the work and leisure areas, and the dormitory, where the close proximity between members necessitated a remarkable array of diverse forms of communication. While it may appear that much of the communication in the central convent was staged, there was need for improvisation; in addition, there were areas in which Templars and Hospitallers differed from each other or in which the sources at least suggest divergent priorities.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jochen Burgtorf https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.003 Kommunikation der Ideen: Das Ideal der Hingabe des eigenen Lebens für andere 2020-12-29T23:36:58+01:00 Helmut Flachenecker helmut.flachenecker@uni-wuerzburg.de <p><strong>Communication of Ideas in the Teutonic Order: The Ideal of Sacrificing One’s Life for Others</strong></p><p><strong><br /> </strong>In the monastic rules of the Teutonic Order, the founding history and the central purpose of the Order are brought together. Within the community, the brotherhood of priests had to encourage the knight brothers, who actively fought for the defense of Christendom, in following the example of the suffering Christ, which was a central facet in their self-image. The model for the active struggle was prefigured in the Old Testament narratives on the succession of Abraham. Further examples can be found in Moses and Joshua as well as King David. A ‘new knighthood’ (<em>nuwe ritterschaft</em>) will continue this battle to drive away the Gentiles from the Holy Land. This knighthood were the new Maccabees who, as monks and knights, had to fight for the native land of Christ.</p><p>This ‘new battle’ (<em>bellum novum</em>) was based on Christian virtues: Therefore, Peter von Dusburg gives a detailed symbolic re-interpretation of military weapons in his Chronicle: The <em>milites</em> and <em>bellatores</em> of the Teutonic Order have to defeat the enemies of the faith. For the necessary fight, they should prepare themselves by means of secular and spiritual exercises. The synopsis of the connection of the secular struggle against the heathen with that of the spiritual fight against evil in general, which was supposed to take place within the individual fighter, likely prevented a stronger emphasis on martyrdom in the normative texts of the Teutonic Order. Although the Teutonic Order respected the idea of martyrdom, the monk-knights had a second area of responsibility in the way of hospitality.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Helmut Flachenecker https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.004 Information flow between the Templar brothers during their trial in France (1309-1311) 2020-12-29T23:36:58+01:00 Magdalena Satora m.satora@uksw.edu.pl <p>After the arrest of the Templars in France in October 1307, they were held in various prisons throughout the kingdom for almost three years. They did not have the opportunity to exchange information with each other and, above all, to get instructions from the leaders of the Order. This changed in the beginning of 1310, when more than 650 brothers came to Paris to participate in the inquiry led the papal commission against the Order as a whole. In the beginning of the Paris proceedings, French Templars were offered a chance to defend the Order together. They tried to make use of this opportunity, but in May of 1310, after fifty-four brothers were condemned as relapsed heretics by the Council of Sens and burned at stake, they abandoned it.</p><p>The paper focuses mainly on the first phase of the Paris proceedings (before the Council of Sens). The information flow between the Templar brothers and its influence on their situation at that time will be analysed. It will address the following questions: Was the possibility to exchange the information enough for the Templars to defend the Order in an effective manner? Could they do this without the involvement of the Grand Master and other dignitaries of the Order? The answers to these questions will then allow to show that, contrary to the opinion of the vast majority of historians working on this topic, the Templars lost their chance to defend the Order long before the tragic events of May 1310.</p><p>The paper focuses mainly on the first phase of the Paris proceedings (before the Council of Sens). The information flow between the Templar brothers and its influence on their situation at that time will be analyzed. It will allow to answer the following questions: Was the possibility to exchange the information enough for the Templars to defend effectively the Order? Could they do it without the involvement of the grand master and other dignitaries of the Order? The answers to those questions will then allow to show that the Templars lost their chance to defend the Order long before the tragic events of May 1310.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Magdalena Satora https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.005 Communication between the Centre and the Periphery: Example of the Italian branch of the Teutonic Order (13-16th centuries) 2020-12-29T23:36:58+01:00 Kristjan Toomaspoeg k_toomaspoeg@hotmail.com <p>The paper takes as points of departure two major topics: the relations between the center and the periphery in the medieval world and the administrative history of the religious military orders. The specific case of the possessions of the Teutonic Order in Italy, so the bailwicks of Sicily, Apulia, “Lombardy” and Bozen and the seat of the Order's “general procurator” in the papal curia, will be examined with help of the existing primary sources. A particular interest will be given to the methods or instruments used by the headquarters of the Order to control and rule its Italian possessions. All those instruments are based on intensiv communication between the center and the periphery. They consist mainly in: 1. voyages and stays of the Order's highest ufficials in Italy; 2. integration of the superiors of the local bailwicks in the Order’s general chapter; 3. regular documented visitations of the Italian bailwicks and other missions of control; 4. choice of the commanders in Italy among the trusted men of the great master or, later, master of Germany of the Teutonic Order; 5. limited terms of office to the brothers, kept in Italy only a short time; 6. permanent and intensiv written and oral communication. Some relevant differences between the administrative practice of Templars and Hospitallers in Italy can be noted: so were the visitations of the local possessions much more regular in the Teutonic Order but, at the same time, the financing system of the central convent through the <em>responsiones</em> present in the Hospital was practically unknown for the Teutonic brethren. The communications between the center and the periphery took place, in our case, not only on the East-West, but also on the North-South axis. It can be concluded, that the Italian branch of the Teutonic Order was a periphery under the attention of the center. Like all the peripheries of the world, the peninsula was a transit area, between north and south, west and east. If we add here the religious and political importance of Italy and the economic prosperity of the local bailwicks, it becames clear why the Order, at least the better informed masters of Germany, did fight with all possible forces against the expropriation of this patrimony.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kristjan Toomaspoeg https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.006 Beziehungspflege im Wettbewerb Der Deutsche Orden im 14. Jahrhundert 2020-12-29T23:36:59+01:00 Werner Paravicini paravicini@email.uni-kiel.de <p><strong>Caring for good relations. The Teutonic Order in competition during the 14<sup>th</sup> century</strong></p><p> </p><p>This paper does not concentrate on the period of open competition with Poland-Lithuania from 1386/1387 onward, but on the time before, quite less well known, though one example will be posterior. Anterior to about 1390 the documention is scarce. But a single document can shed light on a general practice, thus the report on the 1375 expedition sent to the General Proctor of the Order present in Rome. He was the only permanent informant about the activity of the Order at a princely court. But there were other persons which, from time to time, had similar functions: The economic representative at Bruges and his superiors, the Great Proctors of Marienburg and Königsberg, and the herald of the Order. We see all of them go to Western Europe, where they brought and received gifts from and to the Great Master, who participated fully in the gift-exchange between courts. Naturally there were also occasional diplomatic missions. One of them is particularily well documented, on both sides, since the reports of Dietrich von Logendorf in 1409 are still extant. Since gifts had to be precious or at least rare, the Great Master was in a good position: He could offer amber and prussian-lituanian-polish specialities, and falcons, the gift of which he developped into a permanent system of European renown, exceptionally well documented. Relatively rare was the gift of the familiarity of the Order, but there is a lack of archival tradition. Finally, the Table of Honour, celebrated in the context of the Lithuanian expeditions was quite an attraction. Its history, not yet completely elucidated, takes us back to 1375 and poses the question of the origins, of the Table itself and of the practice of its announcements. In general, the care itself is not a warrantee for good relations. It was obliged, without assuring positive results. What it was good for gets visible only when one refused to participate in this valse of politeness, attention and good will: He declares himself an ennemy.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Werner Paravicini https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.007 Sprachenkompetenz im livländischen Zweig des Deutschen Ordens 2020-12-29T23:36:59+01:00 Anti Selart anti.selart@ut.ee <p><strong>Language expertise in the Livonian Teutonic Order</strong></p><p> </p><p>The contribution discusses the knowledge of languages by members and officials of the Teutonic Order in Livonia. The topics of this paper are the presence and role of the (Old) Russian, and Livonian native languages in the Order. Russian was needed for diplomatic contacts with the Rus’ and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There were individual knights of the Order who were able to communicate in Russian. However, the Order mostly used hired interpreters and translators. They were of urban descent and had learned the language as young merchants. Some of them served the Order (the Master of the Order) for decades and received small holdings (a couple of peasant farms) as payment. In several cases the translators acted independently as diplomats and envoys. The Livonian Teutonic Order also needed special staff for communication with the natives. As indicated in the sixteenth-century sources, the Teutonic manors had interpreters among their staff. The intermediators could be members of Livonian local German nobility, and of the native (“undeutsch”) descent as well. The interpreters at a Teutonic castle belonged to the lower group of functionaries and became remunerated, for example, with a tavern or mill. The quality of the translations can be traced in the case of the communication with the Rus’, and it is in many cases remarkably low. All in all, the practical multilingual communication of the Teutonic Order in Livonia functioned seemingly quite well.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anti Selart https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.008 The Grant of Hospitaller Safe-Conducts in the Fifteenth Century to Recipients on Rhodes and Cyprus: Their Function and Effectiveness 2020-12-29T23:37:00+01:00 Nicholas Savvas Coureas ncoureas@hotmail.com <p>In this paper the tradition the Roman Catholic Church practised of granting safe conducts to various parties so as to assist them in implementing business of the Church or their own affairs will be examined and discussed with special reference to Rhodes and Cyprus. Hospitaller safe conducts granted on fifteenth century Cyprus and Rhodes were given to laymen as well as to Hospitaller brothers and the reasons varied. Most of the Hospitaller safe conducts issued on Rhodes and Cyprus to be discussed cover the years 1413‒1459 and originate from published documents found in the Order’s Rhodian archives. As one would expect, a considerable number of them concern diplomatic missions undertaken by Hospitaller brothers. The Hospitallers also granted safe conducts to Latin clergy who were not members of the Order. Requests to afford safe passage to persons undertaking diplomatic missions for the Order were at times addressed to the captains and owners of ships, and the persons concerned were likewise not always members of the order.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nicholas Savvas Coureas https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.009 Kommunikation in schweren Zeiten Die Ordenswürdenträger und ihre Partner in der späten Hussitenzeit (Böhmen, Mähren) 2020-12-29T23:39:18+01:00 Libor Stanislav Jan jan@phil.muni.cz <p><strong>Communication in difficult times: Order dignitaries and their partners in the late Hussite period (Bohemia, Moravia)</strong></p><p> </p><p>The present paper deals primarily with the subject of communication between the representatives of the Bohemian-Moravian Bailiwick of the Teutonic Order in the second half of the 15<sup>th</sup> and the first half of the 16<sup>th</sup> century. In 1411, the Order lost most of its landed property and survived only with some significant parishes, mainly in Plzeň (Germ. Pilsen), Slavkov (Germ. Austerlitz), Hostěradice (Germ. Hosterlitz), Opava (Germ. Troppau) and Deblín. In the period under examination, the Order lost its parishes in Jindřichův Hradec (Germ. Neuhaus) and Osová Bítýška. The definitive disappearance of the “residual” order structure was brought about by the Reformation. The last, relatively active land commander was Plzeň the parish priest, Matthew of Švihov. In the second part of this paper, we trace the contacts of the Knights Hospitaller’s prior Wenceslaus of Michalovice (Germ. Michelsberg), especially his correspondence with the South Bohemian magnate Oldřich II z Rožmberka (Ulrich II. von Rosenberg). In addition to political affairs, they corresponded on chivalric pastimes such as tournaments and hunting.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Libor Stanislav Jan https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.010 Die innere Korrespondenz der Johanniter im schlesich-polnischen Ordenszweig in der zweiten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts auf Grund des Formelbuches aus dem Nationalarchiv in Prag 2020-12-29T23:37:01+01:00 Maria Starnawska mstarnawska@wp.pl <p><strong>The inside correspondence of the Knights Hospitaller in Silesian-Polish branch of the order in the second half of the 15<sup>th</sup> century based on the collection of the letters in National Archives in Prague</strong><strong></strong></p><p> </p><p>In the National Archives in Prague, Fond “The Great Priory of Bohemia”, is stored a fascicle writen in the end of the 15<sup>th</sup> century from the Silesian commandery of the Knights Hospitaler in Striegau (Pol. Strzegom). In the last quarter of the 15<sup>th</sup> century, two commanders of Striegau were also lieutnenats to the prior of Bohemia for Silesia and Poland. The various materials from the time of their holding office were copied in this fascicle. Among them, we find almost 100 letters written by the Knights Hospitaller from the Silesian-Polish branch of the order or by the priors of Bohemia. There are the letters from priors to lieutenants and to each other, from the lieutenant to commanders, and from the brethren to one another. The correspondence between the lieutenant and the commanders of Löwenberg (Pol. Lwówek) is especially intensive in this fascicle.</p><p>The contents of these letters concern various problems of the internal life of the order. The most important problems are the obligation to pay the <em>responsiones</em> and the difficulties of each commander to fulfill<em> </em>this duty. In these letters we can find also the other problems: the offences of the brethren such as drunkennes, the difficulties to fullfill all the services because of the illnesses of brethren, conflicts between the brethren and with the municipal authorities, management of the order’s property, appointing the brethern to the posts in the order’s hierarchy, and others. A very important problem is the way of the sending of these letters and the frequency of these correspondence.<strong> </strong><strong></strong></p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Starnawska https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.015 Ordines Militares ‒ 20 Konferenzen. Der Weg einer Freundschaft / Ordines Militares – 20 Conferences. The Way of a Friendship 2020-12-29T23:37:03+01:00 Udo Arnold udoarnold@gmx.de <p><strong>Ordines Militares – 20 Conferences. The Way of a Friendship</strong></p><p> </p><p>This article examines the scientific development between Polish and German historians of the Teutonic Order from 1974 until today. Its scope ranges from ideological opponents, made in the 19th century and prolongated in the nationalist and communist period in Germany and Poland, to normal dicussions and collaboration.</p><p>The way to friendship began during the political rapprochement of the Federal Republic of Germany and the states of the Warsaw Pact in 1969/1970. By the efforts on the Polish and the German part, this moved from a political friendship to an alliance in research. From this moment, more liberal meetings and encounters followed. This led to the initiation of the series of conferences, “Ordines militares”, hosted at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, and the foundation of the “Internationale Historische Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Odens” at Vienna. It resulted in a fundamental common publications in two series of books, the abandonment of the nationalistic view in international conferences and exhibitions and – last but not least – friendship.</p><p>The text also in English version - see below.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Udo Arnold https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/32587 The procedure of reviewing publications 2020-12-29T23:45:46+01:00 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders annam@umk.pl 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.016 L’église d’Abu Gosh. 850 ans de regards sur les fresques d’une église franque en Terre Sainte. Edited by Jean-Baptiste Delzant. Paris: Tohubohu éditions, 2018. 303 S. ISBN: 978-2-37622-070-1. 2020-12-29T23:41:48+01:00 Ignacio Garcia Lascurain Bernstorff ignacioglb@hotmail.com L’église d’Abu Gosh. 850 ans de regards sur les fresques d’une église franque en Terre Sainte. Edited by Jean-Baptiste Delzant. Paris: Tohubohu éditions, 2018. 303 S. ISBN: 978-2-37622-070-1. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ignacio Garcia Lascurain Bernstorff https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.017 The Countryside of Hospitaller Rhodes 1306–1423: Original Texts and English Summaries. Edited by Anthony Luttrell and Gregory O’Malley. Abingdon– Oxford: Routledge, 2019. 324 pp., 4 figures (2 maps and 2 parchment photographs). ISBN: 978-1-1-138-73262-9. 2020-12-29T23:41:35+01:00 Nicholas Savvas Coureas ncoureas@hotmail.com The Countryside of Hospitaller Rhodes 1306–1423: Original Texts and English Summaries. Edited by Anthony Luttrell and Gregory O’Malley. Abingdon–Oxford: Routledge, 2019. 324 pp., 4 figures (2 maps and 2 parchment photographs). ISBN: 978-1-1-138-73262-9. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nicholas Savvas Coureas https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.018 Christofer Herrmann. Der Hochmeisterpalast auf der Marienburg. Konzeption, Bau und Nutzung der modernsten europäischen Fürstenresidenz um 1400. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2019. 600 S., 7 Karten im Anhang. ISBN: 978-3-7319-0813-5. 2020-12-29T23:41:24+01:00 Piotr Gotowko piotrg03@yahoo.de Christofer Herrmann. Der Hochmeisterpalast auf der Marienburg. Konzeption, Bau und Nutzung der modernsten europäischen Fürstenresidenz um 1400. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2019. 600 S., 7 Karten im Anhang. ISBN:<br />978-3-7319-0813-5. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Piotr Gotowko https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.019 Communicating the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of Sophia Menache. Edited by Iris Shagrir, Benjamin Z. Kedar, and Michel Balard. Crusades – Subsidia 11. London–New York: Routledge, 2018. XXX + 277 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-06819-3 2020-12-29T23:41:02+01:00 Piotr Kołodziejczak piotrk593@gmail.com Communicating the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of Sophia Menache. Edited by Iris Shagrir, Benjamin Z. Kedar, and Michel Balard. Crusades – Subsidia 11. London–New York: Routledge, 2018. XXX + 277 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-06819-3. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Piotr Kołodziejczak https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.020 Schuldbücher und Rechnungen der Großschäffer und Lieger des Deutschen Ordens in Preußen. Bd. 4. Liegerbücher der Großschäfferei Königsberg (Ordensfolianten 150–152 und Zusatzmaterial). Herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Cordula A. Franzke 2020-12-29T23:43:04+01:00 Wiesław Długokęcki w.dlugokecki@univ.gda.pl Schuldbücher und Rechnungen der Großschäffer und Lieger des Deutschen Ordens in Preußen. Bd. 4. Liegerbücher der Großschäfferei Königsberg (Ordensfolianten 150–152 und Zusatzmaterial). Herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Cordula A. Franzke. Veröffentlichungen aus den Archiven Preussischer Kulturbesitz 62/4, Quellen und Darstellungen zur Hansischen Geschichte, N.F. LIX/4. Berlin: Duncker &amp; Humblot, 2018. 745 pp. ISBN: 978-3-428-15251-3. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Wiesław Długokęcki https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.022 Paweł Grochowski. Chrystian: biskup Prus 1216–1245 i misja pruska jego czasów. Górna Grupa: Wydawnictwo Verbinum, 2018. 500 pp., 34 photographs, 22 drawings. ISBN: 978-83-7192-552-8. 2020-12-29T23:42:54+01:00 Marian Dygo m.dygo@ah.edu.pl Paweł Grochowski. Chrystian: biskup Prus 1216–1245 i misja pruska jego czasów. Górna Grupa: Wydawnictwo Verbinum, 2018. 500 pp., 34 photographs, 22 drawings. ISBN: 978-83-7192-552-8. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marian Dygo https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.023 Castrum sanctae Mariae. Die Marienburg als Burg, Residenz und Museum. Herausgegeben von Arno Mentzel-Reuters und Stefan Samerski. Vestigia Prussica. Forschungen zur ost- und westpreußischen Landesgeschichte 1. Göttingen 2019 2020-12-29T23:42:31+01:00 Johannes Götz goetzjohannes@gmx.de Castrum sanctae Mariae. Die Marienburg als Burg, Residenz und Museum. Herausgegeben von Arno Mentzel-Reuters und Stefan Samerski. Vestigia Prussica. Forschungen zur ost- und westpreußischen Landesgeschichte 1. Göttingen 2019. 505 S., 142 Abb. ISBN: 978-3-8471-0883-2. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Johannes Götz https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.024 Jürgen Sarnowsky. Die geistlichen Ritterorden. Anfänge – Strukturen – Wirkungen. Geschichte der christlichen Orden. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 2018. 273 S., 10 Abbildugen. ISBN: 987-3-17-034388-7. 2020-12-29T23:42:15+01:00 Maria Starnawska mstarnawska@wp.pl Jürgen Sarnowsky. Die geistlichen Ritterorden. Anfänge – Strukturen – Wirkungen. Geschichte der christlichen Orden. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 2018. 273 S., 10 Abbildugen. ISBN: 987-3-17-034388-7. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Starnawska https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.025 Das Leben im Ordenshaus. Vorträge der Tagung der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens in Tallinn 2014. Herausgegeben von Juhan Kreem 2020-12-29T23:42:01+01:00 Christofer Hermann chriherr@yahoo.de Das Leben im Ordenshaus. Vorträge der Tagung der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens in Tallinn 2014. Herausgegeben von Juhan Kreem. Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens 81, Veröffentlichungen der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens 17. Ilmtal-Weinstraße: VDG, 2019. 196 S. ISBN: 3-8973-9919-9. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Christofer Hermann https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.011 The Templars and the Sea 2020-12-29T23:37:01+01:00 Alan Forey alan.forey@mybroadbandmail.com <p>The sea was most important to the Templars for the transport of men and goods. Brothers and supplies had to be dispatched to the East, but the administration of the Order also necessitated numerous voyages, while Templars were further used as envoys by popes and rulers. Goods were sent not only to the Holy Land, and the Order did engage in some trading by sea. Templars used both merchant ships and their own vessels, and the latter carried pilgrims and merchants as well as brothers. The Order’s experience led kings and princes to employ Templars at times in matters relating to maritime transport. The Templar’s involvement in maritime warfare was limited and occurred mainly in the eastern Mediterranean against Christian as well as Muslim opponents. Only occasional references survive about Templars’ fighting at sea in the West. Templar ships appear to have been crewed mainly by non-Templars, but little is known about the numbers and specifications of the Order’s ships, and it is not clear whether the Templars were active in the construction of vessels.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alan Forey https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.012 Communicatio qua communio Zum Eucharistieverständnis von heiden in der frühen preußischen Deutschordenschronistik und in volkssprachlich gereimten Verstexten zum preußischen Deutschordenszweig im 14. Jahrhundert 2020-12-29T23:37:01+01:00 Lukas Makarios Grunwald lukas.grunwald@gmail.com <p><strong><em>Communicatio qua communio</em></strong><strong>. On Pagan Understanding of the Eucharist in the early Prussian Chronicles of the Teutonic Order and in vernacular Texts about the Prussian Branch of the Teutonic Order in the 14<sup>th</sup> Century</strong></p><p> </p>This paper analyses the communicative power of the Eucharist in vernacular texts of the 14th century written about the Teutonic Order’s wars against pagans in Prussia. In Nikolaus’ von Jeroschin <em>Kronike von Pruzinlant</em> the Eucharist is mocked and desecrated by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytenis before the battle of Woplauken in 1311. This is understood as a weapon against his Christian opponents. In Schondoch’s <em>Litauer</em>, a Lithuanian king is enabled to witness a somewhat crude form of the Holy Trinity during mass, whereupon he asks for baptism. In both texts the Eucharist is used as a means of communication between Christians, represented by the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order, and literally stylized pagans. This communication is working because the pagans accept the dogma of transsubstantiation. Thus, the pagans are, paradoxically, no heretics, and even, to a certain degree, part of the community of the Church. Yet, as they share a belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharistical substances, they can also be treated as evildoers in a framework that is accepted by both Christians and pagans. Thus, the dogmatic orthodoxy of the pagans is used as a means to legitimate the war against them in the early historiography of the Teutonic Order in Prussia. 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lukas Makarios Grunwald https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.013 Die Rolle der Stadtkirchen innerhalb der mittelalterlichen Ballei Brandenburg des Johanniterordens 2020-12-29T23:37:02+01:00 Christian Gahlbeck cgahlbeck@t-online.de <p><strong>The role of urban churches in the medieval Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Knights Hospitallers</strong></p><p> </p><p>In research the Knighs Hospitallers’ Bailiwick of Brandenburg so far mostly has been considered as a regional unit that consisted of commanderies, whose economy mainly based on the agriculture in their estates. The Possession of urban churches, however, ‒ we mean here not only urban parish churches, but also hospital churches and chapels in the urban space in possession of the order ‒ hardly did play a role in historical accounts. The bailiwick, which ranged up to 1370 from the Weser to the Vistula, in the 14th and 15th century included 26 commanderies, but also 20 urban churches, of which 17 lied in immediate towns. In the rectories of the urban churches the Knights put their own priests, which were responsible for the organisation of the entire local church life. Nine of them were subordinated under no commander but only the General Preceptor of the bailwick which could empower them as needed on other churches. As curators (<em>Pfleger</em>), the nine priests participated regularly in the chapters of the bailiwick and had the right to vote in all questions and to participate in the elections of the general preceptors. They represented the members of their mostly small priest convents which has been builded at the nine churches. So far we have still little knowlege about these convents. Apparently some of their brethren similar like mendicants moved around as terminarians in the region to raise funds for the order. Foundations of chapels, altars and masses for these churches were of such high importance for the Knights that they discussed about it and decided on their permission on the chapters of the bailiwick. Overall, therefore the urban churches have probably played an important role in the bailiwick and the whole order. Apparently the Knights in raising their ownership of urban churches besides their commanderies created a second economic pillar, which put their response money payment to the total order on a more solid material basis.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Christian Gahlbeck https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/OM.2020.014 Cistercian Nuns of Zarnowitz (Żarnowiec) and the Teutonic Order in the years 1309‒1454 2020-12-29T23:37:03+01:00 Rafał Kubicki rafal.kubicki@ug.edu.pl <p>The subject of this study is an attempt to determine major matters over which direct relations between the congregation of Cistercian nuns of Zarnovitz (Pol. Żarnowiec) and the Teutonic Order, kept during its rule over Eastern Pomerania. As has been indicated, the grounds for contacts between the cloister and the Teutonic Order were established by the Grand Master or his representatives, in this case the commander of Danzig and the fish master (<em>Fischmeister</em>), based in Putzig. The nature of these contacts were mostly cases regarding the confirmation of borders and the purchases of property. From the point of view of the Teutonic Order, the Cistercian nuns’ cloister was in that regard strictly connected with the abbey of Oliwa. In the first half of the 15th century, a certain independence of the prioress can be seen, which is reflected in her direct contacts with the Grand Master. We do not know whether it was a manifestation of the prioress’s own initiative undertaken in regard to matters of property, or actions of the Teutonic Order, who may have wanted to loosen the actual relations of the monastery with the abbey of Oliva. Another area of mutual contacts were cases regarding the delineation of properties between the cloister and the Teutonic order and, in particular, resolving border disputes with knights. In these cases, the Teutonic Order acted as an arbitrator. A separate matter was the bestowal by the Grand Master of the right to present the parson in the parish of Putzig to the Cistercian nuns, and the intervention of the Teutonic Order’s procurator in Rome regarding the later incorporation of the parish. Alongside issues regarding confirmations of border territories and property purchases of the convent in Zarnowitz, remarks referring to the character of the relationship of the Cistercian nuns with the convent in Oliva are also formulated in this paper, in addition to the significance of the relationship in direct contacts of the prioress and the sisters with the Teutonic Order.<strong></strong></p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rafał Kubicki https://apcz.umk.pl/OM/article/view/32588 Reviewers 2020-12-29T23:45:40+01:00 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders annam@umk.pl 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 OMCTH Journal for the History of the Military Orders