Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 2021-11-09T11:31:33+01:00 Roman Czaja Open Journal Systems <p>Yearbook devoted to the history of military orders. In keeping with tradition, each volume includes a definite thematic scope, which refers to the subject of a conference from the "Ordines Militares" series. Moreover, articles, polemics, research surveys, source monographs and reviews concerning the history of military orders are published there in English, German and French.</p><p>The journal is available in paper and electronic formats. Both formats are identical and are published at the same time. </p><p>Since 2019, "Ordines Militares..." has been indexed in the Scopus list of journals.</p> Reviewers 2021-10-19T13:36:43+02:00 Redakcja <p>Viorel Achim, Institutul de Istorie „Nicolae Iorga”, Academia Română, București</p> <p><br />Matthias Asche, Historisches Institut, Universität Potsdam</p> <p><br />Maciej Dorna, Instytut Historii, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu</p> <p><br />Marian Dygo, Instytut Historyczny, Uniwersytet Warszawski</p> <p><br />Helmut Flachenecker, Institut für Geschichte, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg</p> <p><br />Stephan Flemming, Historisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena</p> <p><br />Hrvoje Gračanin, Odsjek za pivijest, Sveučilište u Zagrebu</p> <p><br />Dieter Heckmann, Emeritus, Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin</p> <p><br />Heinz-Dieter Heimann, Emeritus, Universität Potsdam</p> <p><br />Cordelia Heß, Historisches Institut, Universität Greifswald</p> <p><br />Zsolt Hunyadi, Történeti Intézet, Szegedi Tudományegyete</p> <p><br />Carsten Jahnke, Saxo-Instituttet, Københavns Universitet</p> <p><br />Libor Jan, Historický ústav, Masarykova univerzita, Brno</p> <p><br />Marc Jarzebowski, independent scholar, Berlin</p> <p><br />Jarosław Jarzewicz, Instytut Historii Sztuki, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu</p> <p><br />Sebastian Kubon, Fachbereich Geschichte, Universität Hamburg</p> <p><br />Ilgvars Misāns, Vēstures un filozofijas fakultāte, Latvijas Universitāte, Rīga</p> <p><br />Sebastian Møller Bak, Diplomatarium Danicum, København</p> <p><br />Jarosław Nikodem, Instytut Historii, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu</p> <p><br />Piotr Oliński, Instytut Historii i Archiwistyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu</p> <p><br />Michael Pauly, Département Sciences humaines, Université du Luxembourg</p> <p><br />Krzysztof Skupieński, Instytut Historii, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin</p> <p><br />Rombert Stapel, International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam</p> <p><br />Adam Szweda, Instytut Historii i Archiwistyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu</p> <p><br />Janusz Tandecki, Instytut Historii i Archiwistyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu</p> <p><br />Matthias Thumser, Emeritus, Freie Universität Berlin</p> <p><br />Thomas Wünsch, Philosophische Fakultät, Universität Passau</p> <p><br />Marcus Wüst, Rhein-Sieg-Akademie Kunstkolleg, Hennef</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Redakcja The procedure of reviewing publications 2021-10-19T13:33:25+02:00 Redakcja <p>The procedure of reviewing publications</p> <p>The procedure of reviewing articles published in the journal “Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders” is as follows: Two independent reviewers are appointed to define the academic value of each text sent to the editorial office. Each reviewer of a given text is an employee of scientific institutions in the country other than the country of origin of the author of the article. Neither of the reviewers knows the identity of the other reviewer. The names of the reviewers of given texts remain secret and they are kept by the editorial team. However, in each volume there appears a list of reviewers cooperating with the editorial staff. Reviews are in a written form. To publish an article it is necessary to obtain the agreement of both reviewers who express and justify their opinions concerning the academic nature and the scientific value of a reviewed text.</p> <p> </p> <p>Ethics Statement</p> <p>The journal “Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders” implements ethics rules as well as “ghostwriting”, “guest authorship” and plagiarism detection procedures, which are prepared in accordance with COPE standards. For the details visit index.php/OM/about/index or</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Redakcja Die geographische und familiäre Herkunft der Ordensgebietiger Konrad von Kyburg und Rudolf von Kyburg 2021-04-08T20:14:35+02:00 Piotr Gotowko <p><strong>The geographical and familial origins of the Teutonic Order’s officials Konrad von Kyburg and Rudolf von Kyburg</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>The researchers of the Teutonic Order have placed the brethren Konrad (before 1336 – 12. April 1402) and Rudolf (before 1337–1404) von Kyburg in the north-eastern part of present-day Switzerland – either in the castle of Kyburg near Winterthur in the eastern Canton of Zurich, or in the Canton of Turgovia, lying in the East of Canton Zurich and to the South of Lake Bodensee. Their family lost those areas by 1265, after a sudden death of Hartmann V von Kyburg (1263) and the childless death of his uncle, Hartmann IV (1264). The only successor, the minor daughter of Hartmann V, Anna von Kyburg, was not able to keep her inheritance, which was quickly taken by her nephew Rudolf IV von Habsburg, latter known as German King Rudolf I. He arranged a marriage between Anna and his relative, Eberhard von Habsburg-Laufenburg, leaving them only Burgdorf and Thun in the nowadays Canton Berne. Their son, Hartmann, had taken the name of the maternal dynasty, calling himself since 1297 Hartmann I von Kyburg. His son, Eberhard II von Kyburg, succeeded him. He was the father of eleven children with Konrad von Kyburg and Rudolf von Kyburg among them. Despite their name, they came from Burgdorf and had joined the Teutonic Order because the poor parents could not guarantee them a subsistence. The carreer of Konrad von Kyburg started in the late 1380s. In 1392 he was promoted to the Comtur of Balga and from 1396–1402 had even reached the high rank of the Great Hospitaller. The carrier of his younger brother, Rudolf, was less impressive for he became 1391–1402 the Comtur of Rehden.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Piotr Gotowko Between Commemoration and Living Memory: Symbolic Acts of the Teutonic Knights in Light of Cultural Theory 2021-04-24T23:05:12+02:00 Nicholas W. Youmans <p>The present article investigates the function of ritual acts as a form of communication <em>vis-à-vis</em> cultural meaning in the life of the Teutonic Knights. As a condensed form of communal expression, rituals exhibit an acute potential to render present collective identity and shape the lives of the communities that practice them. Such potential is manifest in the institutional arrangement of the Teutonic Order in various forms with particular reference to their dual standing in society, insofar as they drew upon the societal models of the <em>oratores</em> and the <em>bellatores</em>. Particularly relevant to the current study, considerations of cultural historian and social analyst Jan Assmann regarding symbolic acts and collective living memory assist in creating the theoretical framework for the study’s deliberations. With Assmann’s insights in mind, ritual is understood as a communicative vector of cultural meaning – so to speak – of living memory. The analysis then turns to an examination of select representative examples from diverse scenarios in the existence of the Teutonic Knights, thereby taking into account internal, public, and participatory contexts of symbolic moments. The study thus explores how, while rituals can commemorate memorialised events from the past, they are also able to enact the living memory of a collective entity, ultimately claiming that the examined symbolic acts exhibited both communicative and transformative potential.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nicholas W. Youmans Die Benennung und Bestimmung der Räume im südlichen Repräsentativteil des Geschosses des zweiten „Hochmeisterpalastes“ auf der Marienburg im Mittelalter im Lichte der Schriftquellen 2021-05-19T09:33:44+02:00 Sławomir Jóźwiak Janusz Trupinda <p><strong>Nomenclature and intended use of the rooms of the southern (representative) part of the upper floor of the “palace” of Grand Masters in the Marienburg Castle in the Middle Ages on the basis of written sources</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p>The analyses carried out in this article concerning the southern part of the upper floor of the new (second) “palace” of the Teutonic Order’s superiors in the late Middle Ages allow to formulate several important conclusions. First of all, the building certainly existed before 11 September 1392, but it cannot be ruled out that it was erected at the beginning of the 1370s. In the fifteenth-century sources, its entire southern representative part (looking from the so-called Low and High Halls) along with five rooms of different sizes located there, were referred to as the “Summer (or, less often, Winter) chamber (<em>gemach</em>)”.</p> <p>This name comes from the most characteristic interiors located there: the “Summer Refectory” / “Great Summer Hall” in the western part and the Winter Refectory in the central part. The thorough analysis of medieval written sources carried out in this article allows for the formulation of the thesis that the chamber located in the easternmost part of the southern part of the “palace”, supported by two columns, should be identified as the “Minor Summer Hall” (<em>aula minor estivalis</em>), which was recorded in the transumpt of 14 May 1456. Thus, all the suggestions concerning this interior and its supposed intended use in the discussed period, hitherto put forward by the researchers who have so far formulated their conclusions in isolation from the written accounts of the period, should be rejected.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Janusz Trupinda, Sławomir Jóźwiak A Hospitaller despropriamentum: Dubrovnik 1396 2021-04-24T22:58:10+02:00 Anthony Luttrell <p>A Hospitaller, being vowed to poverty, could not make a will but might dispose of goods he held by making a despropriamentum. Written examples are rare but Fr. Barras de Barras made such bequests at Dubrovnik in 1396; his wealth was notably limited. He fell ill while King Sigismund of Hungary, returning from defeat by the Turks at Nikopolis on the Danube where the Hospitallers rescued him, had stopped at Dubrovnik.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anthony Luttrell Erwiderung auf die Rezension von Piotr Gotowko über das Buch: Christofer Herrmann. Der Hochmeisterpalast auf der Marienburg. Konzeption, Bau und Nutzung der modernsten europäischen Fürstenresidenz um 1400 2021-10-19T11:26:31+02:00 Christofer Herrmann <p>Erwiderung auf die Rezension von Piotr Gotowko über das Buch: Christofer Herrmann. Der Hochmeisterpalast auf der Marienburg. Konzeption, Bau und Nutzung der modernsten europäischen Fürstenresidenz um 1400. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2019, veröffentlicht in Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 25 (2020): 435–442.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christofer Herrmann Damien Carraz. Un commandeur ordinaire? Bérenger Monge et le gouvernement des hospitaliers provençaux au XIIIe siècle 2021-10-19T12:43:51+02:00 Sylvain Gouguenheim <p>Damien Carraz. Un commandeur ordinaire? Bérenger Monge et le gouvernement des hospitaliers provençaux au XIIIe siècle. Turnhout: Brepols, 2021. 528 S. ISBN: 978-2-503-58978-7. DOI 10.1484/M.EMI-EB.5.121469.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sylvain Gouguenheim Globale und regionale Aspekte in der Entwicklung des Deutschen Ordens. Vorträge der Tagung der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens in Würzburg 2016. Herausgegeben von Udo Arnold 2021-10-19T12:50:57+02:00 Tobias Baus <p>Globale und regionale Aspekte in der Entwicklung des Deutschen Ordens. Vorträge der Tagung der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens in Würzburg 2016. Herausgegeben von Udo Arnold. Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens 82, Veröffentlichungen der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens 18. Weimar: VDG, 2019. 221+VIII S. ISBN: 978-3-89739-921-1.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tobias Baus Rafał Simiński. Konflikt – pojednanie – współpraca. Studia nad polityką książąt zachodniopomorskich i biskupów kamieńskich wobec Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach w latach 1320–1423 2021-10-19T12:56:12+02:00 Roman Czaja <p>Rafał Simiński. Konflikt – pojednanie – współpraca. Studia nad polityką książąt zachodniopomorskich i biskupów kamieńskich wobec Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach w latach 1320–1423. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Chronicon, 2019. 725 pp. ISBN: 978-83-950-4030-6.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prof. dr hab. Roman Czaja Michael Heslop. Medieval Greece. Encounters between Latins, Greeks and others in the Dodecanese and the Mani 2021-10-19T13:05:51+02:00 Jürgen Sarnowsky <p>Michael Heslop. Medieval Greece. Encounters between Latins, Greeks and others in the Dodecanese and the Mani. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS1093. London–New York: Routledge, 2021. 347+XIX S., zahlreiche Abb. ISBN: 978-0-36785-907-7.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jürgen Sarnowsky Der Deutsche Orden auf dem Konstanzer Konzil. Pläne – Strategien – Erwartungen. Herausgegeben von Helmut Flachenecker unter Mitarbeit von Tobias Baus und Katharina Kemmer 2021-10-19T13:20:11+02:00 Adam Szweda <p>Der Deutsche Orden auf dem Konstanzer Konzil. Pläne – Strategien – Erwartungen. Herausgegeben von Helmut Flachenecker unter Mitarbeit von Tobias Baus und Katharina Kemmer. Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens 84, Veröffentlichungen der Forschungsstelle Deutscher Orden an der Universität Würzburg 3. Ilmtal-Weinstraße: 2020. 180+XII pp. ISBN: 978-3-89739-944-0.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adam Szweda Werner Paravicini. Adlig leben im 14. Jahrhundert. Weshalb sie fuhren: Die Preußenreisen des europäischen Adels 2021-10-19T13:25:08+02:00 Darius Baronas <p>Werner Paravicini. Adlig leben im 14. Jahrhundert. Weshalb sie fuhren: Die Preußenreisen des europäischen Adels. Tl. 3. Vestigia Prussica 2. Göttingen: V &amp; R unipress, 2020. 807 pp. ISBN: 978-3-8471-1128-3.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Darius Baronas Environment, Colonization, and the Baltic Crusader States. Terra Sacra I, and Ecologies of Crusading, Colonization, and Religious Conversion in the Medieval Baltic. Terra Sacra II 2021-10-19T11:05:14+02:00 Anna Maleszka <p>Environment, Colonization, and the Baltic Crusader States. Terra Sacra I, and Ecologies of Crusading, Colonization, and Religious Conversion in the Medieval Baltic. Terra Sacra II. Edited by Aleksander Pluskowski. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers n.v., 2019.</p> <p> </p> <p>Author’s studies funded by the National Science Centre, Poland’s (NCN) PRELUDIUM grant no. 2016/23/N/HS3/00660.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Maleszka Cover and table of contents 2021-10-11T10:40:53+02:00 Redakcja <p>Ordines Militares Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders</p> <p>vol. XXVI (2021)</p> <p>I Studies and Articles from the 20th Ordines Militares Conference</p> <p>II Other Studies</p> <p>III Reprints</p> <p>IV Book Reviews and Book Notices</p> <p> </p> <p>Editorial Team:<br />Roman Czaja, Editor in Chief, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu<br />Jürgen Sarnowsky, Editor in Chief, Universität Hamburg<br />Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, Associate Editor, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu<br />Anna Maleszka, Assistant Editor, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu</p> <p>Editorial Board<br />Jochen Burgtorf, California State University<br />Sylvain Gouguenheim, École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Lyon<br />Hubert Houben, Università del Salento Lecce<br />Gregory J. Leighton, Cardiff University<br />Alan V. Murray, University of Leeds</p> <p>Scientific Council<br />Udo Arnold, Emeritus, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität Bonn<br />Karl Borchardt, Monumenta Germaniae Historica<br />Helen Nicholson, Cardiff University<br />Maria Starnawska, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach<br />Kristjan Toomaspoeg, Università degli Studi di Lecce</p> <p>Technical Editing and Proofreading:<br />Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, Anna Maleszka, Danuta Murawska,<br />Gregory Leighton, Paulina Czaja<br />Translations: Marta Palczewska</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Redakcja The Hospitaller Background of the Teutonic Order 2021-10-19T10:16:17+02:00 Anthony Luttrell <p>This article examines the foundation in 1190/1191 of a German field hospital outside the walls of Acre during its siege by the Christians studied against a background of Hospitaller affairs in Jerusalem before its loss in 1187. The article relies on contemporary texts rather than the myths which rapidly appeared, while documents issued by the papal chancery suggest misunderstandings of the situation in Syria. The field hospital was the creation of Germans arriving at Acre by sea and overland but its later development inside the walls was, at least partly, conditioned by the long-term mistrust and strife between Romance-speaking and Germanic parties in Jerusalem where the Germans established, at some distance from the main Hospitaller compound, a separate church and hospital dedicated to Santa Maria Alamannorum. &nbsp;In 1143 the pope adjudicated that the Germans were to be subject to the Hospital but were to be administered by Germans speaking German to those for whom they cared. By 1187 there were Hospitaller brethren and possessions in German lands but Santa Maria Alamannorum seems not to have had its own members or properties there. Those Germans at Acre in 1190/1191 would have known about their Jerusalem hospital but would not have sought an institutional link with it because that would have recognized Hospitaller claims to control them. In 1187 the Hospitaller Master and many brethren were killed and their Jerusalem headquarters was lost; no new Master was elected for some time and control passed to a succession of evidently disoriented senior officers. A new Master Garnier de Nablus reached Acre in June 1191 but by then the Hospitallers' rift with the Germans had hardened. and the Teutonic foundation in Acre successfully maintained its independence. How far the Hospitallers’ mismanagement of the situation eventually limited or impoverished their own order's future in German lands remains incalculable.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Professor Anthony Luttrell Vom officium zum beneficium: Lokale Verwaltungsstrukturen im Johanniter-Priorat Alamania während des 13. und frühen 14. Jahrhunderts 2021-04-29T13:04:06+02:00 Karl Borchardt <p><strong>From <em>officium</em> to <em>beneficium</em>: Local government structures in the Hospitaller Priory of <em>Alamania</em> during the 13<sup>th</sup> and early 14<sup>th</sup> century</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>The paper is about the appointment of commanders for Hospitaller houses in southern Germany during the second half of the thirteenth and the first half of the fourteenth century (until c. 1330). No written documents about such appointments are extant from the time and region. The names of the commanders are only known from local charters. Some commanders were changed almost annually. Others stayed on more or less for life. The Hospitaller rule, statutes and <em>consuetudines</em> concerning such appointments are not clear. In the fourteenth century commanders were entrusted their houses either for ten years or for life. Earlier on shorter periods are probable, five years or even only one year, until the next regional chapter. Further research should be devoted to the question whether military-religious orders started with an office whose officers was <em>ad nutum amovibilis</em>, and then changed to procedures known from ecclesiastical benefices held by non-religious, secular clergy for life and from fiefs held by secular knights that were also held for life.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Karl Borchardt Communicating God’s war. Accounts of holy war in Polish medieval narrative sources 2021-07-06T10:08:39+02:00 Darius von Güttner-Sporzynski <p>The authors of Polish medieval narrative accounts from and about Poland communicated episodes of Christian holy war and proto-crusades in a distinct and consistent way from the early twelfth century. In this article I will argue that the anonymous author of the <em>Gesta principum Polonorum</em> presented the Polish conquest of Pomerania as a holy war, and that a hundred years later, the learned Vincentius Bishop of Cracow in his <em>Chronica Polonorum</em> depicted three military campaigns against the Prussian pagans and apostates as crusading expeditions. I will also argue that the first Polish historian Jan Długosz, deliberately celebrated and highlighted these earlier accounts to his contemporary fifteenth century readership, using these histories to position Poland’s rulers as having a longstanding and consistent commitment to crusading, at a time when participation in crusades was a central concern of Poland’s ruling elites. This article will conclude that each of these written works was a commissioned text and part of a deliberate strategy by the rulers of Poland to communicate their engagement in Christian holy wars at the periphery of Christian Europe.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Darius von Guttner-Sporzynski Preußisches Landesbewusstsein in Beglaubigungsmerkmalen öffentlicher Notare des 14. und beginnenden 15. Jahrhunderts 2021-04-29T13:12:04+02:00 Dieter Heckmann <p><strong>Prussian national awareness in certification features of public notaries of the 14<sup>th</sup> and the beginning of the 15<sup>th</sup> century</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>The signs of Prussian notaries presented in this article fit into the framework of the German type of notary signs, although peculiarities can be recognized that relate to Prussia or to parts of this country. However, examples of this could only be found in small numbers, since the majority of the notarial signs handed down lack any reference to the country. Examples from the years 1417 and 1429 show that public notaries maintained Prussian national awareness even after the great defeat of the Teutonic Order near Tannenberg in 1410.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dieter Heckmann Zu Briefbeförderung des Deutschen Ordens in Livland im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Die Eilbriefe 2021-04-08T17:34:14+02:00 Juhan Kreem <p><strong>On Delivery of Letters in the Teutonic Order in Livonia in the 15<sup>th</sup> and 16<sup>th</sup> centuries. Express Letters</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>This contribution is on the organization and efficiency of the delivery of letters within the Teutonic Order in Livonia. Firstly, the scarce data on couriers and their duties is presented. The main part of the contribution discusses the phenomenon of registration of time (hour) and place in some of the stations on the delivery routes of letters. This method, also used extensively in Prussia, was most likely introduced in Livonia at the beginning of the fifteenth century. It was used in case of most urgent letters and was first and foremost meant to monitor the efficiency of delivery. The majority of the places of registration of time are in the territory of the Order, but there are also some exceptions, when this was done in episcopal castles or manors. A high number of letters of the Masters of the Teutonic Order in Tallinn City Archives also present the opportunity for some preliminary statistical analysis for understanding how space and time were mastered on the routes between Riga, Wenden, and Reval. It appears that, although the letters were ordered to be carried day and night, the calculated average speed was low, indicating some stops for rest along the road were also made.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Juhan Kreem Über einige Aspekte des diplomatischen Verkehrs zwischen dem Hochmeister und Kaiser Sigismund von Luxemburg 2021-07-05T13:45:30+02:00 Přemysl Bar <p><strong>On some aspects of the diplomatic traffic between the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>The diplomatic traffic between the Grand Master of the Teutnic Order and Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg was carried out according to the common practices of diplomacy in late medieval Europe. Nevertheless, this topic deserves further exploration due to Sigismund’s efforts to impose suzerainty upon the Grand Master and the Teutonic Knights. This issue influenced their mutual relations after Sigismund’s election as Roman-German King in 1410/1411.</p> <p>There are numerous surviving sources, especially in the archive of the Teutonic Order in Berlin (GStA PK), such as legation’s instruction, dispatches and, last but not least, the political correspondence between the Grand Master and Emperor Sigismund. These sources can shed light not only on the complicated diplomatic relation between above-mentioned two entities, but also, due to richness of their content, on late medieval diplomacy in general.</p> <p>Based upon the research findings by Klaus Neitmann, who explored the Order’s legation exclusively, this paper tries to expand the field of research by including the legations of Sigismund. From this perspective only several selected aspects of the topic are examined in the study: 1) defining a legation (foreign mission) and its characteristic features; 2) the diplomatic traffic between the Grand Master and Sigismund of Luxembourg from a prosopographical perspective; and 3) the personal composition and communication at the court of Sigismund.</p> <p>The richness of sources makes new questions possible concerning not only this specific diplomatic traffic, but also late medieval diplomacy in general as well. However, the definite answers might be delivered after compiling a thorough list of all legations from both sides, which in light of the large number of primary sources must be reserved for another study.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Přemysl Bar Nicolaus von Redewitz – ein Diplomat und Informant des Deutschen Ordens am Hof von Sigismund von Luxemburg 2021-06-14T15:09:00+02:00 László Pósán <p><strong>Nicolaus von Redewitz – the Teutonic Order’s diplomat and informant in the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>At the end of 1422, Sigismund of Luxembourg, King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor, allowed the Teutonic Order to have a permanent diplomatic representation in his court, in the person of Nicolaus von Redewitz. This was related to the fact that from the beginning of the 1420s, the Ottoman Empire posed an increasingly serious threat to the southern borders of Hungary again, and Sigismund wanted to win over the Order for the fight against the Turks. Arriving in the court of the king, von Redewitz kept the Grand Master of the order informed of Sigismund’s political plans, decisions, negotiations, military actions against the Turks, and all-important events. A recurring theme in his letters was the king’s urge that the Order take on the defence of the southern borders of the Hungarian Kingdom. In return, he first offered the Grand Master the Burzenland in Southern Transylvania, from where Andrew II, King of Hungary, expelled the Order in 1225, then the Banate of Severin by the lower Danube. Following long negotiations, at the end of July 1429, a few Teutonic Knights arrived in Hungary. These knights did not undertake the armed protection of the southern borders, only its organisation. Sigismund entrusted the management of twenty-one fortresses and military watch-posts to the Knights, who envisioned the reinforcement of the defence with the involvement of mercenaries. However, the Hungarian Treasury was unable to provide the expenses for this plan. When, at the end of the summer of 1432, the Turks launched an attack at the lower Danube, they managed to occupy three fortresses under the control of the Order. Recognising that the Order’s idea of the protection of the borders is impossible to finance, at the end of 1434, Sigismund agreed to the gradual return of the Teutonic Knights who had arrived in Hungary in 1429 to Prussia.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 László Pósán Pósán The communication of the Master of the Livonian Branch of the Teutonic Order with the King of Denmark and the Grand Duke of Lithuania during the 15th century 2021-05-19T11:34:48+02:00 Mihkel Mäesalu <p>This study of the communication of the Livonian Branch of the Teutonic Order with the king of Denmark and the Grand Duke of Lithuania focuses on diplomatic cooperation between the Order’s Livonian and Prussian branches. Though the Grand Master largely represented the Livonian Master in communication with the Danish king during the first half of the fifteenth century, this took place because the Danish king preferred to communicate Livonian matters to the Grand Master. In the second half of the century, the king addressed the Livonian Master directly and the Grand Master lost his role as a mediator of communication between the king and the Livonian Master. The communication with the Grand Duke of Lithuania can be described as forming a triangle, where both the Grand Master and the Livonian Master were in frequent correspondence with the Grand Duke and would represent each other if needed. The second half of the fifteenth century saw a tendency toward excluding the Grand Master from communication between the Livonian Master and the Grand Duke, probably due to the diverging political goals of the Prussian and the Livonian branches of the Order. As a concluding generalization, one can say that cooperation between these two branches of the Teutonic Order in diplomatic correspondence was largely determined by the preferences of their partners in communication as well as by the compatibility of their respective political stances.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mihkel Mäesalu Die Reichstagsteilnahme des livländischen Deutschordenszweiges und seine Beziehungen mit dem deutschen Zweig (ca. 1520‒1560) 2021-04-24T22:50:14+02:00 Madis Maasing <p><strong>The participation of the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order at the Imperial Diets and its relations with the German branch (from the 1520s to the 1550s)</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>This article discusses the relations of Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order with the German branch from the secularization of Prussia (1525) to the beginning of the Livonian War (1558), and concentrates on the topics that were connected with the participation of the Order at the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the aforementioned period, the branches had very few direct connections, and relations of the Livonian branch with the Empire were usually mediated by the Grand Master of the Order. After 1525, the German Master largely took over the role of a mediator, as he became the acting head of the Order and had close relations with the central Imperial institutions. The latter became increasingly important for the Livonian Master, who became an Imperial prince most probably on the 24th of December 1526. This enabled him to participate in the Imperial Diets. At the Diets, the branches represented their interests usually separately. This was partially caused by the fact that these diverged quite strongly: while the German branch aspired for the recuperation of Prussia, tried to protect the Order’s possessions from increasing intrusions of German princes, and paid the Turkish taxes to obtain support from the Emperor; the Livonian branch wanted to obtain support against the Russian threat and rivals inside Livonia, while also trying to avoid paying Imperial taxes. Additionally, the Duke of Prussia was the neighbour of Livonia with whom the Livonian branch usually tried to maintain normal relations. Nevertheless, the branches communicated quite actively during the Diets and supported each other, at least in a rhetorical capacity. Additionally, Livonian envoys normally went firstly to the German Master for consultations and headed to the Diets only thereafter. Thus, the communication was quite vivid, but did not leave many marks to the official documentation, as especially the Livonian branch preferred to represent itself as a separate and independent member of the Empire in front of the Imperial Estates.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Madis Maasing Verwaltung per Brief. Die Korrespondenz des Utrechter Landkomturs mit seinen Angestellten, 1753‒1845 2021-06-08T23:23:56+02:00 Renger Evert de Bruin <p><strong>Administration by mail: The correspondence of the Utrecht land commander with his staff, 1753‒1845</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>The correspondence between the land commanders of the Teutonic Order’s Bailiwick of Utrecht and their staff, the stewards and clerks, provides a detailed insight into the institution’s functioning between 1753 and 1845. The Bailiwick was administered from the Teutonic House in Utrecht by a resident steward who mostly communicated with his superior in writing, as the latter lived at a considerable distance and came to Utrecht at most once a year. A relationship of trust was essential for the proper functioning of this arrangement. In the first decades after the start of a reorganisation in 1753, this was certainly the case, but the lack of this relationship of trust led to major problems later on.</p> <p>The analysis of the correspondence paints a picture of the management of dispersed large estates in the pre-industrial era, before major advancements in both transportation and communication. The case study is also important for the knowledge of the Military Orders after the Reformation and during the Age of Revolution, when these institutions were seriously threatened. Additionally, the Bailiwick of Utrecht did not escape abolition by Napoleon, but this was reversed in 1815. The increasingly hostile correspondence between the land commander and the steward about the liquidation procedures in 1812‒1813 provides insight into the survival mechanism of the Bailiwick of Utrecht. The research presented in this article is part of a larger study of the Bailiwick of Utrecht between 1640 and the middle of the twentieth century.</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Renger Evert de Bruin