Johanniterbischöfe im Östlichen Mittelmeer (14.–15. Jahrhundert)

Jürgen Sarnowsky

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/OM.2018.003

Abstract


Hospitaller Bishops in the Eastern Mediterranean (14th–15th century)

Rudolf Hiestand defined a bishopric of an order as being feudally and political dependent dioceses on this other institution. In this sense, the archbishopric of Rhodes as well as the dependent on Kos and Nisyros were bishoprics of the Hospitallers. Nevertheless, the Order failed to install a sequence of priest brethren as bishops or archbishops. The election of priest brethren to these offices were rather the exception, as in the case of fr. Jean Morelli elected in 1447, and the probably small cathedral chapters never were dominated by priest brethren. When the Order received a papal bull in 1433, that decreed that priest brethren should be preferred as Latin bishops of Rhodes and the Dodecanese because of their knowledge of Greek and local customs, this was soon superseded by the events. The Council of Florence decreed the Union between Eastern and Western Church, and the Greek metropolitan Nathanael came to Rhodes and became the first of several Greek bishops on Rhodes, whose position was finally defined as that of suffragans of the Latin archbishop, and therefore the arguments in the papal bull did not fit the situation anymore. But in general, the Order was not much focussed on a control over the bishoprics, also on Cyprus, but rather tried to preserve a good relationship to the secular clergy in its sphere of influence.

Keywords


history; the Middle Ages; military orders; Hospitallers; Rhodes; Cyprus; bishops; conventual priors

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