„Slim, Smart and Happy?” Stigmatization of Obesity Among Preschool Children
Keywordsobesity, body image, attribution, preschool children, silhouette test
Nowadays, the idea “the slimmer – the better” has gained such an enormous power in our culture that it significantly affects even the youngest members of modern society. For this reason, obesity is particularly traumatic for children and young people. It was decided to examine whether these important cultural changes also apply to the youngest members of today’s Polish society, moreover there is lack of studies of this problem in polish literature. Hence, the authors of this paper have focused on the question whether and how preschool children stigmatise obesity?
The study was conducted on a group of 122 children with a three-silhouette technique, based on a method proposed by Tremblay et al. (2011). The results show that being classed as overweight means being perceived as lacking in physical and interpersonal attractiveness, so obesity appears to elicit a very strong negative stigma. The features of the slim body shape equal physical and interpersonal attractiveness (but only in the field of playing together).
Bell S., Morgan S. (2000), Children’s attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese, Does a medical explanation for the obesity make a difference?, “Journal of Pediatric Psychology”, 25 (3), p. 137–145, DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/25.3.137
Brylinsky J. A., Moore J. C. (1994), The identification of body build stereotypes in young children, “Journal of Research in Personality”, 28, p. 170–181, DOI:10.1006/jrpe.1994.1014
Burke L.E., Wang J. (2011), Treatment strategies for overweight and obesity, “Journal of Nursing scholarship”, 43(4), p. 368 – 375, DOI:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2011.01424.x
Cash T. F., Deagle E. A. III (1997), The nature and extent of body-image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: A meta-analysis, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 22 (2), p. 107–125, DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199709)22:2<107:AID-EAT1>3.0.CO;2-J
Cash T. F., Fleming E. C. (2002), Body image and social relations. In: T. F. Cash and T. Pruzinsky (eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (p. 277–286), New York: Guilford Press.
Cohen R., Klesges R. C., Summerville M., Meyers A. W. (1989), A developmental analysis of the influence of body weight on the sociometry of children, “Addictive Behaviors”, 14 (4), p. 473–476, DOI:10.1016/0306(89)90036-1
Coie J. D., Dodge K. A. (1988), Multiple sources of data on social behavior and social status in the school: A cross age comparison, “Child Development”, 59 (3), p. 815–829.
Collins M. E. (1991), Body figure perceptions and preferences among preadolescent children, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 10 (2), p. 199–208, DOI:10.1002/1098-108X(199103)10:2<199::AID-EAT2260100209>3.0.CO;2-D.
Coovert D. L., Thompson J. K., Kinder B. N. (1988), Interrelationship among multiple aspects of body image and eating disturbance, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 7 (4), p. 495−502, DOI: 10.1002/1098-108X(198807)7:4<495::AID-EAT2260070407>3.0.CO;2-A
Cramer P., Steinwert T. (1998), Thin is good, fat is bad: How early does it begin?, “Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology”, 19 (3), p. 429–451, DOI: 10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80049-5
Davison K., Markey C., Birch L. (2003), A longitudinal examination of patterns in girls’ weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 33, p. 320–332, DOI: 10.1002/eat.10142
Dion K. K., Berscheid E., Walste E. (1972), What is beautiful is good, “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 24 (3), p. 285−290, 10.1037/h0033731
Dohnt H., Tiggemann M. (2006), The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study, “Developmental Psychology”, 42 (5), p. 929–936, DOI: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.529
Ells L. J., Campbell K., Lindstone J., Kelly S., Lang R., Summerbell C. (2005), Prevention of childhood obesity, Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19 (3), p. 441−454, DOI: 10.1016/j.beem.2005.04.008
Engle Y., Kasser T. (2005), Why do adolescent girls idolize male celebrities?, “Journal of Adolescent Research”, 20, p. 263–283, DOI: 10.1170/0743558404273117
Engström I., Norring C. (2002), Estimation of the population “at risk” for eating disorders in a non-clinical Swedish sample: A repeated measure study, “Eating and Weight Disorders”, 7 (1), p. 45–52.
Fabian L. J., Thompson J. K. (1989), Body image and eating disturbance in young adolescent children, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 8, 63–74, DOI:10.1002/1098-108X(198901)8:1<63::AID-EAT2260080107>3.0.CO;2-9
Falkner N. H., French S.A., Jeffery R. W., Neumark-Sztainer D., Sherwood N. E., Morton N. (1999), Mistreatment due to weight. Prevalence and sources of perceived mistreatment in woman and man, “Obesity Research”, 7 (6), p. 572–576, DOI:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1999.tb00716.x
Feldman W., Feldman E., Goodman J. T. (1988), Culture versus biology: Children’s attitudes toward thinness and fatness, “Pediatrics”, 81 (2), p. 190–194.
Gardner R. M., Brown D. L. (2010), Body image assessment: A review of figural drawing scales, “Personality and Individual Differences”, 48, p. 107−111, DOI:10.1016/j.paid.200908.017.
Goodman E., Whitaker R. C. (2002), A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity, “Pediatric”, 110 (3), p. 497−504, DOI: 10.1542/peds/110.3.497
Griffin A. M., Langlois J. H. (2006), Stereotype directionality and attractiveness stereotyping: is beauty good or is ugly bad?, “Social Cognition”, 24 (2), p. 187−206, DOI: 10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.187
Heinberg J. L. (1996), Theories of body image disturbance: peceptual, development al, and sociocultural factors. In: J. K. Thompson (ed.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity. An integrative guide for assessment and treatment (p. 27−49), Washington: American Psychological Association DC.
Kraig K. A., Keel P. K. (2001), Weight-based stigmatization in children, “International Journal of Obesity”, 25 (11), p. 1661–1666,
Langlois J. H., Stephan C. W. (1981), Beauty and the beast: The role of physical attractiveness in the development of peer relations and social behavior. In: S. S. Brehm, S. M. Kassin, F. X. Gibbons (eds.), Developmental Social Psychology (p. 47−63), New York: Oxford University Press.
Latner J. D., Rosewall J. K., Simmonds M. B. (2007), Childhood obesity stigma: Associations with television, videogame and magazine exposure, “Body Image”, 4 (2), p. 147–155, DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.03.002
Latner J. D., Stunkard, A. J. (2003), Getting worse: the stigmatization of obese children, “Obesity Research”, 11 (3), p. 452–456, DOI: 10.1038/oby.2003.61
Lerner R. M., Korn S. J. (1972), The development of body-build stereotypes in males, “Child Development”, 43, p. 908–920, DOI:10.1111/1467-8624.ep12114590
Lerner R. M., Lerner, J. Y. (1977), Effects of age, sex and physical attractiveness on child-peer relations, academic performance, and elementary school adjustment, “Developmental Psychology”, 13, p. 585−590, DOI: 10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2065
Lunde C., Frise´n A., Hwang C. P. (2006), Is peer victimization related to body esteem in Swedish 10-year-old girls and boys?, “Body Image”, 3 (1), p. 25–33, DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.10.002
Maddow G.L., Liederman V. (1969), Overweight as a social disability with medical implications, “Journal of Medicine Education”, 44 (3), p. 220−226.
Maltby J., Giles D., Barber L., McCutcheon L. E. (2005), Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image: Evidence of a link among female adolescents, “British Journal of Health Psychology”, 10 (1), p. 17–32, DOI:10.1348/135910704X15257
Mendelson B. K., Mendelson M. J., White D. R. (2001), Body-esteem scale for adolescents and adults, “Journal of Personality Assessment”, 76 (1), p. 90–106, DOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA7601_6
Mendelson M. J., Mendelson B. K., Andrews J. (2000), Selfesteem, body-esteem, and body-mass in late adolescence: Is a competence x importance model needed?, “Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology”, 21, p. 249–266, DOI: 10.1016/S0193-3773(99)00035-0
Musher-Eizenman D. R., Holub S. C., Mille, A. B., Golstein S. E., Edwards-Leeper L. (2003), The narrow range of acceptable body types of preschoolers and their mothers, “Applied Developmental Psychology”, 24, p. 259–272, DOI: 10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00047-9
Musher-Eizenman D. R., Holub S. C., Miller A. B., Golstein S. E., Edwards- Leeper L. (2004), Body size stigmatization in preschool children: The role of control attributions, “Journal of Pediatric Psychology”, 29 (8), p. 613–620, DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsh063
Neumark-Sztainer D., Story M., Harris T. (1999), Beliefs and attitudes about obesity among teachers and school health providers working with adolescent, “Journal of Nutrition Education”, 31, p. 3–9, DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3182(99)70378-X
Noles S. W., Cash T. F., Winstead B. A. (1985), Body image, physical attractiveness, and depression, “Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology”, 53 (1), p. 88−94, DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.53.1.88
Paul R. J., Townsend J. B. (1995), Shape up or ship out? Employment discrimination against the overweight, “Employees Responsibilities and Rights Journal”, 8 (2), p. 133–145, DOI: 10.1007/BF02621279
Pause C. (2012), Live to tell: Coming Out as Fat, “Somatechnics”, 2 (1), p. 42–56, DOI: 10.3366/soma.2012.0038
Pierce J. W., Wardle J. (1993), Self-esteem, parental appraisal and body size in children, “Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry”, 34 (7), p. 1125–1126, DOI:10.1111/1469-7610ep11423771
Puhl R., Brownell K. D. (2001), Bias, discrimination and obesity, “Obesity Research”, 9 (12), p. 788–805, DOI:10.1038/oby.2001.108
Puhl R. M., Latner J. (2007), Obesity, stigma, and the health of the nation’s children, “Psychological Bulletin”, 133 (4), p. 557−580, DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.1334.557
Rand C. S. W., Wright B. A. (2000), Continuity and change in the evaluation of ideal and acceptable body sizes across a wide age span. “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 28, p. 90–100, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200007)28:1<90::AID-EAT11>3.0.CO;2-P
Rierdan J., Koff E., Stubbs M. L. (1988), Gender, depression, and body image in early adolescents. “Journal of Early Adolescence”, 8 (2), p. 109−l17, DOI: 10.1177/0272431688082001
Saguy A., Word A. (2011), Coming out as fat: Rethinking Stigma, “Social Psychology Quarterly”, 74 (1), 53–75, DOI: 10.1177/0190272511398190
Salvy S. J., Romero N., Paluch R., Epstein L. H. (2007), Peer influence on pre-adolescent girls’ snack intake: Effects of weight status, “Appetite”, 49 (1), p. 177–182, DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2007.01.011
Sands R., Tricker J., Sherman C., Armatas C., Maschette W. (1997), Disordered eating patterns, body image, self-esteem, and physical activity in preadolescent school children, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 21, p. 159−166, DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199703)21:2<159::AID-EAT6>3.0.CO;2-K
Sarwer D. B., Grossbart T. A., Didie E. R. (2003), Beauty and Society, “Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery”, 22 (2), p. 79−92.
Schur E. A., Sanders M., Steiner H. (2000), Body dissatisfaction and dieting in young children, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 27, p. 74–82, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI) 1098-108X(200001)27:1<74::AID-EAT8>3.0.CO;2-K
Schwartz M. B., Puhl R. (2003), Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve, “Obesity Revievs”, 4 (1), p. 57−71, DOI:10.1046/j.1467-789X.2003.00093.x
Shisslak C. M., Crago M. (2001), Risk and protective factors in the development of eating disorders. In: J. K. Thompson, and L. Smolak L. (eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth (p. 103–125), American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Sigelman C. K., Miller T. E., Whitworth L. A. (1986), The early development of stigmatizing reactions to physical differences, “Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology”, 7, p. 17–32, DOI: 10.1016/0193-3973(86)90016-X
Smolak L. (2004), Body image in children and adolescents: where do we go from here?, “Body Image”, 1 (1), p. 15–28, doi:10.1016/S1740-1445(03)00008-1
Staffieri J. R. (1967) A study of social stereotype of body image in children. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 7 (1), p. 101−104, DOI: 10.1037/h0021227
Stice E. (2002), Body image and bulimia nervosa. In: Cash T. F., and Pruzinsky T. (eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (p. 304–311), Guilford Press, New York.
Storch E. A., Milsom V. A., Debraganza N., Lewin A. B., Geffken G. R., Silverstein J. H. (2007), Peer victimization, psychosocial adjustment, and psychosocial activity in overweight and at-risk-overweight youth, “Journal of Pediatric Psychology”, 32 (1), p. 80−89, DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsj113
Thelen M. H., Cormier J. F. (1995), Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents, “Behavior Therapy”, 26, p. 85–99, DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80084-X
Tiggemann M., Wilson-Barrett E. (1998), Children’s figure ratings: Relationship to self-esteem and negative stereotyping, “International Journal of Eating Disorders”, 23, p. 83–88, DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199801)23:1<83::AID-EAT10>3.0.CO;2-O
Tremblay L., Lovsin T., Zecevic C., Larivičre M. (2011), Perceptions of self in 3–5-year-old children: A preliminary investigation into the early emergence of body dissatisfaction, “Body Image”, 8 (3), p. 287– 292, DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.04.004
Tremblay L., Limbos M. (2009), Body image disturbance and psychopathology in children: Research evidence and implications for prevention and treatment, “Current Psychiatric Reviews”, 5 (1), p. 62–72, DOI: 10.2174/157340009787315307
Turnbull J. D., Heaslip S., McLeod H. A. (2000), Pre-school children’s attitudes to fat and normal male and female stimulus figures, “International Journal of Obesity”, 24 (12), p. 1705–1706.
Verkuyten M. (1990), Self-esteem and the evaluation of ethnic identity among Turkish and Dutch adolescents in the Netherlands, “Journal of Social Psychology”, 130 (3), p. 285−297, DOI: 10.1080/00224545.1990.9924584
Worsley A. (1981), In the eye of the beholder: Social and personal characteristics of teenagers and their impressions of themselves and fat and slim people, “British Journal of Medical Psychology”, 54 (3), p. 231−242, DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199611)20:3<287::AID-EAT8>3.0.CO;2-K
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 49
Number of citations: 0