Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) <p>Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) is a twice per year journal published every six months since 2005. It is devoted solely to reports concerning research on educational processes. It is both a scholarly forum for the exchange of research results and a source of research models.</p><p><span class="TextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0">Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Educational</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Studies</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Review</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0">) </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">is</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">indexed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> in The </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">European</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> Reference Index for the </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Humanities</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> and the </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Social</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Sciences</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> (ERIH PLUS), Directory of Open Access </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Journal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> (DOAJ), and Index Copernicus International </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW46638036 BCX0">Journals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW46638036 BCX0"> Master List.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW46638036 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p><p> </p><div><strong>Dear Authors, </strong></div><div><strong>The deadline for submitting articles to issues 32/2021 and 33/2021 is February 28, 2021. The editorial team of the Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) invites authors to submit articles to issues 34/2022 and 35/2022 from September 1, 2021.</strong></div><p><span class="EOP SCXW46638036 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"><br /></span></p> Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun en-US Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 1895-4308 The Conformist Attitudes Scale (SPK-II). Latent Structure Analysis Using the Bi-Factor Model <p>The aim of this article is to present the evaluation of psychometric properties of an original tool for measuring the propensity to adopt conformist attitudes in adolescents - the Conformist Attitudes Scale (SPK-II). The objective was achieved based on the results of exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis using a bi-factor model. Analyses were performed on a polychoric correlation matrix using the WLSMV estimator. The Geomin oblique rotation was used for the EFA. Data for the validation study were collected in Poland in 2012 and 2020 from 256 and 245 students aged 16-19, respectively. Of the solutions tested, the bi-factor model proved to be the best fit to the data (RMSEA= 0.052; CFI = 0.964; TLI = 0.953). Based on the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, coefficients omega (ω), and ECV, the scale was found to have high reliability. At the same time, the stability of the scale’s latent structure, its dimensionality and reliability were positively verified by comparing the estimates for the data from 2012 and 2020. The analyses conducted allowed the researchers to assume that the SPK-II latent factor structure model consists of a general factor and three subfactors. The subfactors correspond to subscales which measure specified attributes of a general propensity to adopt conformist attitudes: lack of self-confidence, submissiveness to others and passivity in expressing one’s own views.</p><p>The SPK-II fills a gap consisting in the absence of standardized research tools whose diagnostic spectrum is concerned with measuring the general propensity to adopt conformist attitudes in adolescents, taking into account attributes around which the conformity is focused. Its application enables studying conformity as an important adaptation mechanism in adolescence and predicting individual behaviour in various social situations related to participation in peer groups.</p> Sylwia Opozda-Suder Kinga Karteczka-Świętek Małgorzata Michel Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 229–249 229–249 10.12775/PBE.2021.014 Validation of the Short School Helplessness Scale (SBS-S) <p>Learned helplessness caused by a prolonged stay in an uncontrolled situation manifests itself in cognitive, motivational and emotional deficits. The School Helplessness Scale (SBS) is used to measure the students’ learned helplessness which is created at school. The aim of the current research was to reanalyze the SBS factor validity, the structure of which was previously not fully satisfactory. As a result, the Short School Helplessness Scale was created (SBS-S). The analysis was conducted on a sample of 1228 high school students and 1170 primary school students in Poland. Internal consistency of SBS-S was estimated using Cronbach’s<br />α and Composite Reliability (CR). The criterion validity and construct validity were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as well as convergent and discriminant validity.<br />SBS-S contains 15 items and a three-factor structure. Reliability is completely satisfactory: for SBS-S α: 0.81-0.89; CR = 0.937, and for subscales α: 0.71 -0.83; CR: 0.79-0.86. Construct validity aspects were confirmed using CFA (CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.917; SRMR = 0.054; RMSEA = 0.060 (90% C.I. 0.051-0.069)) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The criterion validity was also confirmed. The SBS-S correlation with four criterion variables (anxiety, self-esteem, sense of self-efficacy, and motivation to learn) is consistent with the assumed one, both in strength and direction. SBS-S norms for school helplessness of high school students were calculated. Analysis of the reliability and structural validity of SBS-S on various data sets proves the high stability of psychometric properties of the scale. This confirms the usefulness of SBS-S for scientific research and application in school practice.</p> Barbara Ciżkowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 251–270 251–270 10.12775/PBE.2021.015 Employability of University Students: Introduction of the Concept and the Psychometric Properties of the Polish Self-Perceived Employability Scale <p>Higher education has been undergoing a number of changes in recent years, and its effect is to be not only the diploma but the competencies needed for professional work. The employment model has also changed – currently, employees change jobs more often, contracts are rather short-term, and work requires the acquisition of new competencies in line with the idea of lifelong learning. The Covid-19 reality complicated the job market, even more, making people to lose and change their jobs much more often and be prepared to work constantly in unstable hybrid reality. Consequently, studies should not so much prepare to undertake a specific job but provide competences that build “employability”. The aim of the research presented in the article is to adapt and prepare the Polish version of The Self-Perceived Employability Scale of Rothwell &amp; Arnold (2007). 600 first-year students took part in the study. The research results indicated a significant two-factor model, and therefore a Polish version of the scale based on two subscales was developed, which has good psychometric properties. The scale differs from the original British version, which may be related to social and cultural differences. The changes have been discussed and approved<br />by the team and consulted with the author of the original version. The scale can be used to assess the perceived level of own employability for students of different years of study. Its<br />results may form the basis for making decisions regarding the design of study programs and their evaluation in longitudinal studies.</p> Ewa Domagała-Zyśk Piotr Mamcarz Klaudia Martynowska Agnieszka Fudali-Czyż Andrew Rothwell Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 271–287 271–287 10.12775/PBE.2021.016 There Is No End of Paradigms War in Social Sciences: A Meta-Analytical Approach <p>The article is devoted to analyzing the present relevance of paradigms war concept, the most abstract meta-problem in social science. The main problem can be expressed in the following way: is it possible that there is the end of phenomenon called a paradigms war in the situation of common acceptance of pluralist approach to making science and growing importance of “mixed methods research”? To answer this question, the Author confronts the positivist and constructivist paradigms. These are compared with the special emphasis put on the epistemological differences between them and also differences between the nature of their research, quantitative or qualitative. The next analysed context is related to an alternative approach, pragmatism which rejects “the either-or position” and stresses the importance of mixed methods research is examined. To answer the main question, the Author further moves on to study these paradigms as an instrument of power in academia, especially when relating to promoting the younger generation of scholars. Against this background, the concept of epistemic communities, which is based on the idea of intersubjectivity and reciprocity of perspectives, is taken into account. Finally, the author concludes that the idea of academic freedom as a base of paradigmatic pluralism needs to be stressed. The meta-analytical approach to the main problem has been used by the author.</p> Zbyszko Melosik Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 193–203 193–203 10.12775/PBE.2021.011 Cross-Cultural Research: Insider/Outsider Dichotomy Reconsidered <p>The aim of my article is to confront the insider/outsider dichotomy with the present state of cultural research from the meta-analytical perspective. In the beginning, the paper reconstructs classical Robert Merton’s theory of insider/outsider and the research potential of its basic assumption. Then, the emic-/etic approaches, as well as absolutist and constructivist approaches to cross-cultural research, are considered. The four James Bank’s types of cultural researchers and Richard Hanvey’s cultural empathy levels are presented against the background of multicultural reality. Further, the opposition of indigenous epistemology and the Western one is analyzed, as well as potential value of decolonizing methodology is emphasized. Finally, the article brings solid conclusions regarding the importance of the insider/ outsider dichotomy as a tool for understanding the key issues of cross-cultural research even in our current global era.</p> Agnieszka Gromkowska-Melosik Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 205–214 205–214 10.12775/PBE.2021.012 Analysis of the State of Research on the Effectiveness of the Philosophical Inquiry Method <p>The aim of the article is to present and analyze the state of research on the effectiveness of the method of philosophical inquiry with children. The method was developed by the American philosopher Matthew Lipman (1923–2010) in the 1970s and, over the last few decades, has found many supporters and enthusiasts around the world. The dynamic development of the method was related to the implementation of numerous evaluation projects of the Philosophy for children (P4C) program, the aim of which was to examine the effectiveness of this method in the context of the development of cognitive and social competences of students. The article analyzes reports and reviews of the most important research projects related to the P4C method, selected on the basis of the adopted methodology, scope, and subject of the research. The conducted analysis leads to the conclusion that the researches on the effectiveness of P4C done so far, confirming that there exists a relationship between the participation of students in classes conducted with the method of philosophical inquiry and the improvement of educational achievements of these students in the area of cognitive and social competence.<br />As a result of the analysis, it was also found that the previous researches did not include the evaluation of the P4C method in the context of improving the competences of teachers working with this method. The potential positive importance of P4C for the development of teachers’ communication and teaching skills is signalled by many theorists and practitioners dealing with philosophizing with children.</p> Paweł Walczak Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 215–228 215–228 10.12775/PBE.2021.013 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 1 2 10.12775/35175 Therapy of Sensory Integration Disorders in Pre-School and Early School-Age Children (Based on the Results of Pilot Experimental Studies) <p>The concept of sensory integration, developed by Jean Ayres, is currently receiving considerable attention among specialists working with children experiencing developmental problems resulting from sensory integration disorders. Developmental problems arising from sensory integration disorders are exemplified, among others, in the acquisition of skills and abilities necessary for proper functioning, including those related to cognitive development and education. Therefore, during the course of the pilot experimental studies, presented in this article, an attempt was made to establish the effectiveness of plastic footbridges and those made with natural materials on the sensory integration therapy in pre-school and early school-age children. The studies concentrated on selected aspects of children’s functioning, including tactile performance of feet, motor coordination of the hands and legs with regard to gross motor skills, motor coordination of the hands with regard to fine motor skills, fitness and ability to maintain body balance. The research was carried out in four experimental groups: the first two groups included children of early school age with and without sensory integration disorders, and the other two included pre-school and early school-age children with deeper intellectual disabilities and sensory integration disorders. The two experimental groups carried out a series of five therapeutic classes using plastic footbridges, while two others used footbridges made of natural materials. The obtained data allowed a preliminary conclusion to be formulated about the superiority of footbridges made of natural materials over plastic footbridges in the context of effective influence on the therapy of sensory integration disorders in the examined children. However, it is necessary to continue research in more numerous groups and with a larger number of therapeutic classes.</p> Marzenna Zaorska Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 5 21 10.12775/PBE.2021.001 Polish Perspective on the Reflective Judgement Level Amongst Students of the Erasmus Programme <p>Erasmus is the largest programme in history that supports student mobility in Europe. It improves foreign language skills and the soft skills of participants, enabling immersion in diverse cultures. Moreover, it is viewed as a driver for innovation and social inclusion in higher education, contributing to a rise in the self-esteem, independence and openness of participants. These features are the integral ingredients for high levels of reflective judgment, understood as selfreferencing to one’s own knowledge production, understanding the sources of knowledge, the contexts and the relativity of one’s experience. In the empirical study presented in this paper, international Erasmus exchange students were subjected to standardised assessment of their reflective judgement level. Educational, social and familial experiences, connected to the latter were taken into account. The basic theoretical framing is derived from King and Kitchener’s (1994) Reflective Judgment Model, based on 7 cognitive stages, characteristic of 3 different levels of reflectivity: pre-reflective, quasi-reflective and reflective. The results of presented study indicate that international Erasmus exchange students display high levels of reflective judgment and the authors argue that it may be due to several socio-educational factors including an ideal activating learning environment created by the programme.</p> Anna Perkowska-Klejman Anna Odrowąż-Coates Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 23–39 23–39 10.12775/PBE.2021.002 Attitudes to Studying in Poland <p>The research problem was defined as ‘What is the attitude towards studying in Poland, and how has it changed in connection with transformational and generational changes?’</p><p>Methods of data collection and analysis: An original questionnaire, “Attitudes to Studying”, containing 55 statements referring to nine content areas defining attitudes towards studying.</p><p>Indication of the research sample: The research was conducted between 2015 and 2017 (N=2102). Three generations were defined, as follows: younger generation, 17–39; middle generation, 40–59; and older generation, 60 plus. Other variables taken into consideration were study status, political transformation (study before and after 1989), and gender.</p><p>Main results: The research allowed us to distinguish three empirical factors relating to motivation to study. The first of these is linked to the decrease in motivation connected with the egalitarianism of studying. This factor was more important for women than for men. The second indicates the significance of a university’s prestige when taking up studies . Motivation understood in this way was more important for women, people studying before the political transformation, and the results on this scale generally increased with the age of the respondents. The third indicates the role of social pressure in making decisions about studying – this is more important for people studying before the political transformation, and for men compared to women. Interestingly, social pressure is more important for those still studying than for those who have already graduated.</p><p>Conclusions: The research made it possible to distinguish three main groups of motives relating to studying in Poland: the environment and prestige of the university as factors increasing motivation, and the egalitarianism of studies as a factor decreasing motivation. Attitudes towards studying are influenced by both the motives present before the political transformation, as well as those which appeared as the result of socio-cultural changes.</p> Luba Jakubowska Agata Natalia Chmielarz Jacek Skorupski-Cymbaluk Aleksander Kobylarek Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 41–59 41–59 10.12775/PBE.2021.003 Virtual Reality in Teaching and Learning – Experiences and Opinions of Educators <p>The research problem consisted in the question: “What opportunities and limitations in the use of virtual reality (VR) in education do educators/health sciences specialists notice?”. The opinion on the use of VR in education was formed thanks to a combination of two perspectives of the educators: a learner’s perspective (the experience of immersion in VR), and a teacher’s perspective (professional experience). Methodological triangulation was employed, with both the quantitative and qualitative perspectives used. The following tools were employed in the research: The positive and negative emotions scale (SUPIN), version S.20 and the SDVR Questionnaire. The research was conducted at the Department of Health Sciences of the Wroclaw Medical University in Wroclaw, Poland, between October, 2019 and April, 2020. The research group consisted of 30 people specialising in various areas of health sciences. Specialists in health sciences believe that VR is a method which can make the process of education more attractive and facilitate achievement in the areas of knowledge, competences, and skills. The trainings in which educators can experience immersion in VR not only make it possible to generate ideas on how to use the equipment, but they also reduce their concerns as to using it. The realism of the experiences, the positive emotions, the multidimensionality of the images during immersion make it possible to employ VR in various areas of education in which VR may be treated as a means to practice clinical situations in a safe environment, as well as a tool illustrating various realms of knowledge (such as, e.g., human anatomy). What is considered by educators as the greatest obstacle in the popularisation of VR in education is the limited access to equipment. Other difficulties include: adapting software to the subject curriculum, working in large groups, and competences of the educators.</p> Magdalena Kazimierska-Zając Karolina Marek Luba Jakubowska Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 61–74 61–74 10.12775/PBE.2021.004 The Use of Gamification in Academic Teaching – Evidence from Polish State Universities <p>The purpose of the article is to provide answers to the following research questions: How popular are digital games as the first step to gamification, comparing to other teaching methods used in such fields of study as economics, humanities and natural science in Poland? What is the practice of using gamification in academic teaching? The subject literature studies and empirical research carried out in the form of auditorium survey in the third quarter of 2019 across a sample of 200 students (50 people representing each field of study) were used in the article. In order to collect additional information, in-depth interviews with students (4 people representing each field of study) were carried out in the first quarter of 2020. The problem of applying gamification in tertiary education is gaining importance, as evidenced by the growing number of scientific publications addressing this issue. The conducted empirical research shows that digital-game-based learning method is marginally used in academic teaching in Poland and, thus, it is hard to talk about gamification. The article also presents the research process limitations and directions of further research.</p> Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 75–98 75–98 10.12775/PBE.2021.005 Social Order. Between Expectation and Reality <p>This study refers to the ‘decalogue of renewal’, a concept generated by the Polish social opposition movement in 1980–1981 reconstructed by Piotr Sztompka, and later applied by Zbigniew Kwieciński as one of the benchmarks (criteria) of good social order. The study aims to establish to what extent the expectations of that mass social movement, largely included in the ‘decalogue’, have been met and ‘modernised’ after three decades in Poland’s transformation. Which of the decalogue values influence what contemporary young adults think about social order? The study also seeks to assess the level of social order in today’s Poland. To this end, a survey was conducted in 2020 at one of the universities in Pomerania, Poland. The empirical material was collected using an opinion questionnaire developed by Kwieciński (1987). Young people (education students) were asked to make two assessments of the level of social order on a six-point scale. In the first, the respondents evaluated to what degree they recognised the listed social life values as their own and therefore worth the effort to achieve their implementation. The second assessment was intended to determine to what extent a given value is currently present in Polish social life. The unfolding analysis is founded on concepts of socio-cultural evolutionism and isomorphic mechanisms of social development. Such an approach seems pedagogically justified as it allows us to consider social and educational processes in terms of developmental stages, and thus, build a relatively universal framework for studying not only individual and social development but also the level represented by members of society. According to Habermas’s and Kohlberg’s hypotheses on developmental isomorphism of an individual and society, well-integrated within the insights of the evolutionary model, the vast majority of people are incapable of moving beyond the development stage currently represented by society. Our study revealed a deficit in social life values perceived as desirable by young adults, as well as only a limited interest in community values among students. Consequently, it may be concluded that the three decades of ‘modernisation’ processes in Poland have not contributed to a transformation of attitudes and value systems represented by individuals and institutions, in particular those responsible for education.</p> Ewa Przybylska Danuta Wajsprych Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 99–120 99–120 10.12775/PBE.2021.006 Between the Holy Cross and Free Market. Addressing the Issue of Homosexuality in the Narratives of Former Students in Polish Schools <p>In the article the authors present the results of the research based on in-depth interviews with 22 young gays and lesbians, graduates of different types schools in Poland. The main goal of the research was to indicate how, in the opinions of the respondents, the issue of homosexuality was addressed in schools they attended and how these particular ways of treating homosexuality might be related to the wider socio-cultural context. The qualitative analysis of the narratives with the application of thematic analysis of the data let the authors identify four main categories comprising the ways of dealing with the issue of homosexuality (<em>silence</em>, <em>pathologising attitude</em>, <em>the language of sin, pogrom and alternativeless heterosexuality</em>). The authors associate these ways of treating homosexuality with the socio-political context, particularly with the impact of the conservative Catholic church and neo-liberal turn, both of which triggered an ideological backlash in education, resulting in marginalisation of a range of issues in school curricula and permission to use homophobic language in public sphere, including educational settings.</p> Marzanna Pogorzelska Paweł Rudnicki Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-09-25 2021-09-25 1 32 121–139 121–139 10.12775/PBE.2021.007 Humour Style, Identity, and Attachment Processes – An Analysis of Narratives from Nonheteronormative Parents Living in Poland <p>This article presents the results of qualitative research on the narratives of non-heteronormative parents living in Poland. The method of collecting data was partially guided interview. he parents were a couple of women (a trans woman and a cisgender woman) aged 40. The examined woman did not undergo a medical or legal transition. The women were married and raised their child together. The article presents an analysis of humor in the couple’s narrative. The research was guided by the following research questions: In what contexts does humour appear? What styles of humour are present in the narrative? What function does the humour have? Which attachment style characterises the interactions between the partners? Which attachment style characterises the interactions between the parents and the child? What is the relationship between the development of the parents’ sexual/gender identities and their process of forming bonds in the couple? It was shown that during the interview, the couple joked in three main contexts: interaction with the child, sexual and gender identity, and sharing of household chores. The analysis of the style of humor, the psychological functions of humor and the attachment style of the women was made.</p> Małgorzata Kowalska Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 141–159 141–159 10.12775/PBE.2021.008 Gender-Specific Teacher Expectations and Stereotypes Observed in Interactions with Students <p>This article is a report from research on gender stereotyping of students by teachers. The aim of the study was to verify whether teachers show a tendency to stereotype students by gender in their work. School, or specifically teacher-student interactions, was chosen as the research area because it constitutes a critical and powerful socialising agenda that provides a permanent social and physical context for children’s activities and identity formation. To analyse this phenomenon, a survey was conducted on 133 primary school teachers in Poland. The study shows that teacher gender-specific expectations affect both boys and girls in the school environment; however, their distribution is not even across all studied areas of interaction. The studied tendency was found to be relatively low for questions about gender role expectations towards children. However, an opposite trend was discovered with regard to the frequency and type of teachers’ interactions with girls and boys.</p> Anna Malisz Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 161 178 10.12775/PBE.2021.009 The Role of Sail Training as a Factor Strengthening the Hardiness of Extraordinary Youth <p>The paper presents the results of research on the level of the hardiness of participants of high sea cruises implementing the idea of sail training and being a non-standard form of informal education in practice. The study involved 123 people, including 65 girls and 58 boys aged 13 to 18 years, who can be perceived as youth with special educational needs. They were participants of the Krzysztof Baranowski School Under Sails in 2015 and 2016, the cruise of the 42 Author’s High School in Warsaw from 2016, the Catholic School Under Sails in 2017 and Gdańsk School Under Sails in 2019.</p><p>Method: Pre-posttest study with questionnaires issued on the first and last day of each cruise. Dispositional Resilience Scale was used to measure mental hardiness, commitment, openness to challenges and a sense of control of participants. T-tests were used to check the significance of change in results.</p><p>Results: The results show a statistically significant increase in hardiness level measured using the Dispositional Resilience Scale. There was also a significant increase in commitment, openness to challenges and a sense of control of participants, which are measured by subscales of the used scale.</p><p>Conclusions: It can be thought that various types of Schools under Sail are an attractive way to adapt to the special educational needs of gifted young people and strengthen the hardiness of young people, which is a valuable asset of sail training.</p> Miłosz Wawrzyniec Romaniuk Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych (Educational Studies Review) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 1 32 179–192 179–192 10.12775/PBE.2021.010