Teleological markers: Seven lines of hypotheses around Dennett's theory of habits

Luis E. Echarte

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2014.019

Abstract


Neuroscientists frequently use two folk psychology terms –self and consciousness– in formulating decision-making process models. According to Daniel Dennett, such notions lead them to dualistic view of brain functions and hence to dead ends or, at least, to less than optimal designs in the research field. Indeed, Dennett’s position offers interesting insights that may help neuroscientists to comprehend the distinction between conscious and non-conscious behavior. In this paper, I first explore how habitual behavior could be defined from Dennett’s model. Second, taking his view into account, I try to offer a better interpretation of habits. Particularly, I define habits as involving a teleological and preconscious process whose traits and dynamics are indistinguishable from computational ones, but this is so more in their ends than in their origins. Finally, I propose seven lines of experimental hypothesis to support this definition.

Keywords


Habits; intentionality; intention; Intentional Stance Theory; consciousness; self; free will; voluntary control; agency; decision-making

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anscombe, G.E.M. 2000 [1957]. Intentions. London: Harvard University Press.

Aristotle. 1893. The Nichomachean Ethics. Trans. F.H. Peters. 5th Edition. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Truebner & Co.

Artigas, M. 2002. “The mind of the Universe. Understanding Science and Religion.” In Faith, Scholarship, and Culture in the 21st Century, edited by A. Ramos and M.I. George, 113-125. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press. https://www.unav.es/cryf/themindofuniversenotredame.html.

Barandiaran, X., and E. Di Paolo. 2010. “Modeling sensorimotor habits with neuro-robotics. A Reappraisal of the habit concept in psychology.” Accessed 13 Oct. 2010. Personal blog: http://xabierbarandiaran.wordpress.com/2010/10/13/philogeny-of-the-notion-of-habit/.

Bernácer, J., and J.I. Murillo. 2012. “An Incomplete Theory of the Mind.” Front Psychol 3: 418. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00418.

Botvinick, M.M., T.S. Braver, D.M. Barch, C.S. Carter, and J.D. Cohen. 2001. “Conflict Monitoring and Cognitive Control.” Psychol 108: 624–652.

Caramazza, A., and M. Coltheart, M. 2006. “Cognitive neuropsychology twenty years on.” Cognitive Neuropsychology 23 (1): 3-12.

Churchland, P. 2013. Touching a Nerve: The Self as Brain. New York: Norton & Company.

Clark, A. 2013. “Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3): 181-204. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x12000477.

Davidson, D. 1980. “Mental Events.” In Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dennett, D. 1981. Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology. Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Dennett, D. 1984. The Elbow Room. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dennett, D. 1993. Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little, Brown.

Dennett, D. 1998. The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Dennett, D. 2001. Kinds of Minds. The Origins of Consciousness. New York: Science Masters.

Dennett, D. 2003. “The illusion of consciousness” TED talk. Transcription is available on follow link:

Dennett, D. 2004. Freedom Evolves. London: Penguin Books.

Dennett, D. 2010 [1969]. Content and Consciousness. New York: Routledge.

Dennett, D. 2013a. Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking. New York: Norton & Company.

Dennett, D. 2013b. “How thinking tools populate our brains and turn them into minds.” Department of Psychology Keynote Lecture (2 March 2013). Tuft University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Dennett, D. 2013c. “Expecting ourselves to expect: The Bayesian brain as a projector.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3): 29-30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X12002208.

Desender, K, and E. Van den Bussche. 2012. “Is Consciousness Necessary for Conflict Adaptation? A State of the Art.” Front Hum Neurosci 6: 3.

Dezfouli, A. and W.B. Balleine. 2013. “Action sequences and habits: Evidence that goal-directed and habitual action control are hierarchically organized.” PLoS Comput Biol 9 (12): e1003364.

Dickinson, A. 1985. “Action and habits: The development of behavioural autonomy.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biologica Sciences 308 (1135): 67-78.

Echarte, L.E. 2008. “Mind on Nature. The Problem of Unconscious Teleology.” Anuario Filosófico XLI/2: 383-414.

Echarte, L.E. 2012. “Función biológica y meta-biológica. ¿Qué significa mejorar la condición humana?” In Selección de Actas del I Congreso de la Asociación Iberoamericana de Filosofía de la Biología (AIFBI), 418-424. Valencia: Publicacions de la Universitat de València.

Fahlman, S.E., G.E. Hinton, and T.J. Sejnowski. 1983. Massively parallel architectures for A.I.: Netl, Thistle, and Boltzmann machines. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Washington D.C.

Fromm, E. 1964. The Heart of Man: Its genius for good and evil. New York: Harper & Row.

Graybiel, M. 2008. “Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain.” Annual Review of Neuroscience 31: 359-387.

Gregory, R.L. 1978. Eye in the Brain. The psychology of seen. New York: World University Library.

Heidegger, M. 1978 [1928]. What is Metaphysics? London: Routledge. https://www.ted.com/talks/dan_dennett_on_our_consciousness?language=en

Huxley, T.H. 1993 [1893]. “Evolution and Ethics.” In Evolutionary Ethics, edited by M.H. Nitecki and D.V. Nitecki. Albany: State University of New York.

Kenny, A. 1992. The Metaphysics of Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kenny, A. 2007. Philosophy in the Modern World. A new history of western philosophy. Vol. 4. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kouider, S., and S. Dehaene. 2007. “Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: A critical review of visual masking.” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci 362: 857–875.

Krueger, F., and J. Grafman, eds. 2012. The Neural Basis of Human Belief Systems. New York: Psychology Press.

Libet, B. 1985. “Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8: 529-566. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00044903.

Libet, B. 1999. “Do we have free will?” Journal of Consciousness Studies 6(8–9): 47–57.

">http://www.centenary.edu/attachments/philosophy/aizawa/courses/intros2009/libetjcs1999.pdf

.

Libet, B. 2003. “Can Conscious Experience Affect Brain Activity?” Journal of Consciousness Studies 10(12): 24-28.

Libet, B., E.W. Wright, and C.A. Gleason. 1982. “Readiness potentials preceding unrestricted spontaneous pre-planned voluntary acts.” Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 54: 322-325.

Libet, B., E.W. Wright, C.A. Gleason, and D.K. Pearl. 1983a. “Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential). The unconscious initiative of a freely voluntary action.” Brain 106: 623-642.

Libet, B., E.W. Wright, and C.A. Gleason. 1983b. “Preparation or intention-to-act, in relation to pre-event potentials recorded at the vertex.” Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 56: 367-72.

Llano, A. 1999. El enigma de la representación. Madrid: Síntesis.

McCloskey, M. 1993. “Theory and evidence in cognitive neuropsychology: A ‘radical’ response to Robertson, Knight, Rafal, and Shimamura.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 19: 718-734.

Millán Puelles, A. 1967. La estructura de la subjetividad. Madrid: Rialp.

Mossio, M., C. Saborido, and A. Moreno. 2009. “An Organizational Account of Biological Functions.” Brit. J. Phil. Sci 60: 813–841.

Pacherie, E. 1997. “Motor-images, self-consciousness, and autism.” In Autism as an Executive Disorder, edited by J. Russell, 215-255. New York City: Oxford University Press.

Pacherie, E. 2012. “Action.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Sciences, edited by K. Frankish and W.M. Ramsey, 92-111. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank Slate. The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Viking Penguin.

Polo, L. 2006. Curso de teoría del conocimiento I. Pamplona: EUNSA.

Rangel, A., C. Camerer, and P. Read Montague. 2008. “A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9: 545-556.

Searle, J.R. 1983. Intentionality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J.R. 1995. The Construction of Social Reality. New York: Free Press.

Wittgenstein, L. 1953. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.








ISSN 2300-7648 (print)
ISSN 2353-5636 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism