Scientia et Fides https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF <p align="left">“Scientia et Fides” (SetF) is an open access online journal published twice a year. It is promoted by the Faculty of Theology of Nicolaus Copernicus University, in Torun, in collaboration with the Group of Research “Science, Reason, and Faith” (CRYF), at University of Navarra.</p><p align="left">SetF aims to present rigorous research works regarding different aspects of the relationship between science and religion. For this reason, SetF articles are not confined to the methodology of a single discipline and may cover a wide range of topics, provided that the interdisciplinary dialogue between science and religion is tackled. The Journal accepts articles written in English, Spanish, Polish, French, Italian and German, which will be evaluated by a peer-review process.</p><p align="left"><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="0"><span><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="0"><span>"Scientia et Fides" is<strong> clasified as Q1 in Philosophy and Q1 in Religious Studies according to Scimago</strong>.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p><p align="left"><span id="result_box" lang="en"><span class="hps">"Scientia</span> <span class="hps">et</span> <span class="hps">Fides"</span> <span class="hps">journal</span> <span class="hps">is</span> <span class="hps">listed</span> <span class="hps">in the following</span> <span class="hps">databases</span>:</span> </p><p align="left">- <a title="CiteFactor" href="https://www.citefactor.org/impact-factor/impact-factor-of-journal-Scientia-et-Fides.php" target="_blank">CiteFactor</a> (<strong>Impact factor 0,82</strong>), <br />- <a href="https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/revista?codigo=22848" target="_blank">Dialnet</a>,<br />- <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2353-5636?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%222353-5636%22%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A100%7D" target="_blank">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>,<br />- <a title="Clarivate" href="https://jcr-1clarivate-1com-1pa7m29d710bf.han3.uci.umk.pl/jcr-jp/journal-profile?Init=Yes&amp;journal=SCI%20FIDES&amp;year=2020&amp;fromPage=%2Fjcr%2Fbrowse-journals&amp;SrcApp=IC2LS" target="_blank">Emerging Sources Citation Index</a>,<br />- <a href="http://www.erevistas.csic.es/" target="_blank">e-Revist@s: Plataforma open access de revistas científicas eletrónicas españolas y latinoaméricanas</a>,<br />- <a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=485016" target="_blank">Erih Plus</a>,<br />- <a href="https://scholar.google.pl/scholar?hl=pl&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Scientia+et+Fides&amp;btnG=" target="_blank">Google Scholar</a>, <br />- <a title="Index Copernicus International" href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/form?search=Scientia%20et%20Fides" target="_blank">Index Copernicus International</a> (ICV 2019: <span class="pull-right"><strong class="ng-binding">121.02</strong></span>), <br />- <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2300-7648" target="_blank">Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals (MIAR)</a>,<br />- <a title="Ranking of REDIB" href="https://redib.org/recursos/Ranking/Revistas" target="_blank">REDIB</a>,<br />- <a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100456774&amp;tip=sid&amp;clean=0">Scimago Journal &amp; Country Rank (SJR)</a>,<br />- <a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21100456774" target="_blank">Scopus</a>, <br />- <a href="https://www.atla.com/about/pressroom/Pages/Announcing-Additions-to-ATLA-Products---November-2015.aspx" target="_blank">The American Theological Library Association (ATLA)</a><br /><a title="The Philosopher's Index" href="https://philindex.org/" target="_blank">- The Philosopher's Index</a></p><p align="left"> </p><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:HyphenationZone>21</w:HyphenationZone> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> 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mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:107%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--> Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu en-US Scientia et Fides 2300-7648 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/deed.en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY ND 4.0.</a> The Creator/Contributor is the Licensor, who grants the Licensee a non-exclusive license to use the Work on the fields indicated in the License Agreement.</p> <ul> <li>The Licensor grants the Licensee a non-exclusive license to use the Work/related rights item specified in § 1 within the following fields: a) recording of Work/related rights item; b) reproduction (multiplication) of Work/related rights item in print and digital technology (e-book, audiobook); c) placing the copies of the multiplied Work/related rights item on the market; d) entering the Work/related rights item to computer memory; e) distribution of the work in electronic version in the open access form on the basis of Creative Commons license (CC BY-ND 3.0) via the digital platform of the Nicolaus Copernicus University Press and file repository of the Nicolaus Copernicus University.</li> <li>Usage of the recorded Work by the Licensee within the above fields is not restricted by time, numbers or territory.</li> <li>The Licensor grants the license for the Work/related rights item to the Licensee free of charge and for an unspecified period of time.</li> </ul> <p>FULL TEXT <a href="https://wydawnictwo.umk.pl/upload/files/dokumenty/Licence%20contract%20APCz%202017.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">License Agreement</a></p> The Person at the Core of Psychological Science https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/34100 <span>The paper has been written from a philosophical perspective and triggered by the recurrent discussions in psychology about the most suitable methods to study our multifaceted subjectivity. Its main point is that a phenomenological understanding of the human person provides a robust and also flexible philosophical framework for psychology. The first part discusses three classical distinctions –individual/general; explaining/understanding; induction/interpretation– which, in spite of possible deficiencies, are useful to illustrate the specificity of the human sciences relative to the natural sciences. If not understood as an either-or dichotomy these distinctions represent the search of the right balance to reflect the complexity and richness of psychological science. The second part presents the phenomenological notions of ‘vital reduction’ and ‘personalist reduction’, where reductions does not take on an eliminativistic meaning, but of directing the mind’s gaze to attend to what is originally the case. The ‘vital reduction’ reveals a subject of experience at the center of the lifeworld, and the ‘personalist reduction’ sees in rationality –i.e., the power to grasp the meaning of things and to recognize other subjects of experience­– a deeper dimension of the subject, who we can thus call a person. Psychology and phenomenology converge in disclosing the person-centeredness of our lifeworld.</span> Juan F. Franck Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 15 33 10.12775/SetF.2021.016 A Tale of Two Perspectives: How Psychology and Neuroscience Contribute to Understanding Personhood https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/34246 <p>Empirical science, such as psychology and neuroscience, employ diverse methods to develop data driven models and explanations for complex phenomena. In research on the self, differences in these methods produce different depictions of persons. Research in developmental psychology highlights the role of intuitive beliefs, such as psychological essentialism and intuitive dualism, in individuals’ singular, cohesive, and stable sense of self. On the other hand, research in neuroscience highlights the de-centralized, distributed, multitudes of neural networks in competition making selves, with arguments around whether the interpretation of these data imply that the self is somehow fundamental and special to human functioning. In this paper, I explore these discrepant pictures of the self to advance understanding about personhood. Specifically, I suggest that these divergent pictures of self from psychology and neuroscience have the potential to inform philosophical and theological discussions around personhood by anchoring models of persons in empirical views of persons. Likewise, I explore the opportunity for philosophy and theology to inform and enhance scientific research on the self by critiquing scientific bias and construct development as well as highlighting potential limits in understanding selves with empirical models.</p> Erin I. Smith Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 35 53 10.12775/SetF.2021.017 The concepts of virtue after the „character – situation” debate https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/34217 <p>The article focuses on a currently hot debate in contemporary ethics that takes place between so-called situationists and the advocates of virtue ethics. The fundamental assumption made by virtue ethics is that developing and perfecting one’s moral character or moral virtues warrants one’s morally good action. Situationists claim that this assumption contradicts the results of the latest empirical studies. From this observation, they conclude that virtue ethics is based on an empirically inadequate moral psychology.</p><p>In the first part of the article, I present the conceptions of virtue and moral character developed in response to the situationist criticism. I show to which degree these conceptions differ from the classical, so-called global approach in virtue ethics In the second part, based on the references to the latest empirical studies in social and cognitive psychology, I argue, against the situationist objection, that the classical notion of virtue meets the requirement of empirical adequacy. I mainly resort to the interactionist theory of personality by W. Mischel, R. Baumeister’s studies over self-control, D. Kahneman's conception of two-processual mind, and the studies over automatized processes by J. Bargh.</p> Natasza Anna Szutta Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 55 74 10.12775/SetF.2021.018 ¿La comunicabilidad operativa de la persona requiere su comunicabilidad ontológica? Discusión sobre un dogma filosófico de nuestro tiempo https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/34320 <p>Does the Operative Communicability of the Person Require his Ontological Communicability? Discussion on a Philosophical Dogma of our Time</p> <p>The idea that a substantialist and individualistic philosophy of the person has permeated all of Western metaphysics and has been an obstacle to thinking about communion and intersubjectivity, has become commonplace in contemporary thought. This perspective is problematized here. It is suggested that the different formulations of it, though varied, obeyed a similar argument and dependence on closely related theoretical foundations. This approach is compared with that of ontological personalism and the results of the so-called "post-metaphysical" attempt to achieve a philosophy of communion that overcomes humanism. Interaction with various authors such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, Foucault, Vattimo, Esposito, Butler, Scheler, among others, illustrate the debate.</p> Juan Pablo Roldán Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 75 90 10.12775/SetF.2021.019 The Dialogical Self Analogy for the Godhead: Recasting the “God is a Person” Debate https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/33558 <p>May God may be understood and referred to as a “person”? This is a live debate in contemporary theological and philosophical circles. However, despite the attention this debate has received, the vital question of how to account for God’s trinitarian nature has been mostly overlooked. Due to trinitarian concerns about the unqualified use of “person” as an analogy for the Godhead, I intervene in this debate with a two-fold proposal. The first is that proponents of using a person as an analogy for the Godhead will be better served by using a psychologically informed analogy of a “self” instead. In particular, the Dialogical Self model of a person holds much promise. In what follows, I argue that the “Dialogical Self Analogy” for the Godhead is more likely to uphold God’s trinitarian nature, avoid trinitarian confusion and related problems than “person” analogies do. The primary benefit of speaking of God as a Dialogical Self is that it offers a psychologically modelled analogy for God, whilst avoiding the language of person, yet strongly taking into account God’s trinitarian nature. This has the important benefit of preserving the concept and language of “person” for the trinitarian persons (the prosopa/hypostases), and hence avoiding the linguistic, conceptual and ecumenical confusion that arises when referring to the Godhead as a person. The strength of using the model and language of a Dialogical Self as an analogy for the Godhead (instead of person) is demonstrated by showing its compatibility with Erickson’s criteria for describing the Trinity.</p> Scott Harrower Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 91 113 10.12775/SetF.2021.020 Gratitude to God: Jonathan Edwards and the Opening of the Self https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/34289 <p>Abstract: The study of gratitude has become an increasingly important topic among psychologists to address the nature of human flourishing. Of more recent interest is how gratitude to God specifically functions within an account of human flourishing, with theologians seeking to provide a distinctively <em>Christian</em> account of the nature of gratitude. This article enters into the ongoing conversation by attending to Jonathan Edwards’s (1703-1758) theological anthropology and development of natural and supernatural gratitude. In particular, Edwards’s anthropology includes within it an account of how the self can, and should, enlarge to receive another in love. This “enlargement” is the creaturely mirror of God’s self-giving and is the supernatural response to the creature who has received God’s grace and been infused with divine love. As a <em>supernatural</em> response based on God’s action in the soul, this account of gratitude differs from its natural counterpart. On Edwards’s account, therefore, there is a need to develop studies that differentiate natural and supernatural gratitude. Furthermore, this article ends with a suggestion for a study that could pick up this task based on recent psychological studies that attend to how gratitude affects self-relation. On Edwards’s account of the enlargement of the self, as well as his notion of supernatural gratitude, there is meaningful research to be done on how these can help assess development in the formation of gratitude and human flourishing.</p> Kyle Strobel Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 115 131 10.12775/SetF.2021.021 La acción humana: una propuesta integral para el diálogo interdisciplinar sobre la personalidad https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/33497 <p>Human Action: a Comprehensive Proposal for Interdisciplinary Dialogue on Personality</p> <p>The need to categorize the personality is recurrent in philosophical, theological and, especially, psychological studies. However, the lack of dialogue between the different disciplines gives rise to analyzes that seem to divide human reality into 'parts', often incompatible with each other. In view of this problem, this article proposes the integral analysis of human action (the way in which the person is actualized), seeking a psychological parameterization that is more adjusted to the complexity of the personality. Starting from the integral vision of the action, the human behavioral and mental aspects commonly studied are seen as insufficient and the horizon is broadened with the reference to interiority. It is intended to achieve a more accurate vision of the complexity of human action. Interiority, parameterized as personal identity, relational intention, and existential positioning, calls for a renewed and related understanding of psychology, philosophy, and theology.</p> José Víctor Orón Semper Miriam Martinez Martínez Mares Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 133 154 10.12775/SetF.2021.022 Second-person Perspective in Interdisciplinary Research: A Cognitive Approach for Understanding and Improving the Dynamics of Collaborative Research Teams https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/32449 <span lang="EN-GB">In this paper, we argue that to reverse the excess of specialization and to create room for interdisciplinary cross-fertilization, it seems necessary to move the existing epistemic plurality towards a collaborative process of social cognition. In order to achieve this, we propose to extend the psychological notion of joint attention towards what we call <em>joint intellectual attention</em>. This special kind of joint attention involves a shared awareness of sharing the cognitive process of knowledge. We claim that if an interdisciplinary research team aspires to work collaboratively, it is essential for the researchers to jointly focus their attention towards a common object and establish a second-person relatedness among them. We consider some of the intellectual dispositions or virtues fostered by joint intellectual attention that facilitate interdisciplinary exchange, and explore some of the practical consequences of this cognitive approach to interdisciplinarity for education and research.</span> Claudia E. Vanney J. Ignacio Aguinalde Sáenz Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 155 178 10.12775/SetF.2021.023 ¿Incapaces de Dios? https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/31837 <p>Are we Human Beings Unable of God?</p> <p>José Cobo maintains that the worldview of contemporary man does not allow him to believe in the sense that the first Christians believed. And he argues that the main cause of that vision has been the development of empirical science. Here I argue that in reality the cause can best be described as an anthropological error, which carries with it a metaphysical deficit. On the other hand, we rectify certain intellectual resources with which we intend to get out of this situation.</p> <p> </p> Enrique R. Moros Claramunt Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 247 258 10.12775/SetF.2021.027 Special Issue of Scientia et Fides on Experimental Psychology and the Notion of Personhood https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/35092 <p>"More recently, cognitive psychologists have used the resources of psychological science to study the foundations of religion, and to discuss and possibly illuminate issues of concern for theologians. The new field, known as the cognitive science of religion (CSR), draws from work by Ernest Thomas Lawson, Robert McCauley, Pascal Boyer and Justin Barrett, among others. Many of its scholars are inspired by a spirit of collaborative work with theologians and philosophers of religion, emphasizing the need of serious cross-training between disciplines. Driven by the same spirit, the present issue of <em>Scientia et Fides</em> documents instances of integrative work at the intersection of psychological science and philosophical or theological knowledge, specifically centered around our understanding of what a person is. We hope that, apart from their individual worth, as a whole these contributions will stimulate further interdisciplinary studies, in order to achieve genuine science-engaged philosophy and theology, and a science that is aware of philosophical and theological discussions." (<span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="0"><span>from the introduction</span></span></span>)</p><p> </p><p> </p> Juan Francisco Franck Scott Harrower Ryan Peterson Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-30 2021-08-30 9 2 7 11 10.12775/SetF.2021.015 Divine Universal Causality and the Particular Problem of Hell: A Quiescence Solution https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/31681 <p>I call the Particular Problem of Hell (PPH) the problem of explaining why God allows a certain set of created persons to populate hell, as opposed to allowing some other set of created persons to do so. This paper proposes a solution to PPH on behalf of proponents of Divine Universal Causality (DUC) — the view, roughly, that God causes everything distinct from himself to exist at any time it exists. Despite initial appearances, I argue, proponents of DUC can adopt a version of the popular approach to the Problem of Hell sometimes called the Choice Model. My proposal is based upon Eleonore Stump's Thomistically-inspired notion that our wills can enter a state of "quiescence" with respect to a given option. While proponents of DUC will, I argue, most likely find Stump's own quiescence-based solution to PPH unacceptable, there is a way of modifying her approach that renders it compatible with God's causing everything distinct from himself, including the free choices of his creatures.</p> Adam Wood Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 181 199 10.12775/SetF.2021.024 Political Theology as Theodicy: The Holy Spirit’s Performance in the Economy of Redemption https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/31299 <p>Although Political Theology examined mainly the political dimension of the relationship between God-Father and God-Son, it is paramount to consider the political performance of the Holy Spirit in the Economy of Redemption. The Holy Spirit has been characterized as the binding cause and the principle of relationality both referring to God’s inner life and to God’s relationship with His creatures. As the personalization of relationality, the Holy Spirit performs a unique task: to bring together what is apart by means of organisation. This power of the Spirit to turn a plurality into a unity is manifested in the Latin translation of <em>oikonomía </em>as <em>disposition</em>, that is, giving a special order to the multiple elements within a certain totality. Within this activity of the Spirit, Theodicy can be regarded as the way to depict God’s arrangement of the world and of history, bringing everything together towards the eschatological Kingdom of God. The paper aims at showing this fundamental activity of the Holy Spirit in Christian Theology, and intends to pose the question on how to think on a theology beyond theodicy, that is, how to think on a Trinitarian God beyond the categories of sovereignty and totalization.</p> Martin Grassi Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 9 2 201 219 10.12775/SetF.2021.025 Do we Need a Plant Theodicy? https://apcz.umk.pl/SetF/article/view/29785 <p>In recent decades, philosophers and theologians have become increasingly aware of the extent of animal pain and suffering, both past and present, and of the challenge this poses to God’s goodness and justice. As a result, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the discussion and development of animal theodicies, that is, theodicies that aim to offer morally sufficient reasons for animal pain and suffering that are in fact God’s reasons. In this paper, I ask whether there is a need to go even further than this, by considering whether effort should be made to extend theodicy to include plants as well. Drawing upon ideas found in some recent animal theodicies as well as in the work of some environmental ethicists, I offer three arguments for supposing that plants should indeed fall within the purview of theodicy: (1) the argument from non-flourishing as evil, (2) the argument from moral considerability, and (3) the argument from intrinsic value. I also consider a possible objection to each of these arguments. Having outlined and defended the aforementioned arguments for broadening theodicy to include plants as well as humans and animals, I conclude by considering what a plant theodicy might look like.</p> Lloyd Strickland Copyright (c) 2021 Scientia et Fides https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 9 2 221 246 10.12775/SetF.2021.026