O pochodzeniu łacińskich przysłówków zakończonych na -iter

Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/LinCop.2009.034

Abstrakt


The  origin  of  the Latin  adverbs  ending with  -iter remains  unclear. They  derived primitively not only from adjectives of the third declension, but also from many adjectives of declensions I and II (cf. Leumann 1963: 299; Hartleb-Kropidło 1999). Researchers did not take into account the possibility that the Latin suffix -iter (typical of adverbs) may be genetically identical with the Celtic suffix *-itri-, which characterizes the so called EQUATIVE degree (Lat. aequativus) of the adjectives in the Insular Celtic languages. Most Indo-European languages do not demonstrate such an adjectival formation. It is traditionally suggested that the Celtic languages introduced a grammatical innovation. Also the Latin adverbs ending with -iter appear to be absent in different Indo-European languages. However, it is possible to demonstrate that these two formations (attested in Latin and Celtic, respectively) are genetically related. The  Insular  Celtic  adjective  has  three  degrees  of  comparison:  the  equative,  the comparative  and  the  superlative  (Pokorny  1914:  71–72;  Thurneysen  1980:  232).  The degree of equality is realized by an adjective with the suffix *-itri- (hence OIr. –ithir, -idir), which  is  followed by  the accusative of  the noun. The equative denotes  that  the person or thing referred to possesses a certain quality in THE SAME degree as that with which he or it is compared. The latter is put in the accusative case(e.g. gilithir gruth ‘as white as milk [acc.]’) or expressed by a conjuctionless clause, e.g. OIr. soilsidir bid hi lugburt ‘as bright (as if) it were in a garden’; is firithir ad fiadar ‘it is as true (as) is reported’ (Thurneysen 1980: 232). Further examples: OIr. denithir ‘as hasty, as swift’ (<   OIr. dían ‘hasty,  swift’); demnithir ‘as  certain’  (< demin ‘certain’);  erlamaidir  ‘as ready’ (< erlam ‘ready’); firithir ‘as true’ (< fir ‘true’ = Lat. vērus); lerithir ‘as eager, as diligent’ (< ler ‘eager, diligent’); lethithir, lethidir ‘as broad’ (< lethan ‘broad’); remithir‘as  thick’  (<  remur ‘thick’);  soirbithir, soirbidir ‘as easy’  (<  soirb  ‘easy’);  suthainidir ‘as  lasting’  (<  suthain ‘lasting’);  tresithir ‘as  strong’  (<  tren  ‘strong’); Middle Welsh gwennet ‘as white’ (< gwenn ‘white’), kynduhet ‘as black’ (< du ‘black’). According to the present author, the equative existed in Proto-Indo-European and it was created by the suffix *-teros (in the central area) and also *-itri- (in the western area). The Latin adverbs ending with -iter was used to create a similaritative formula, which seems analogous to the equative degree of adjective in the Insular Celtic languages.


Słowa kluczowe


języki indoeuropejskie; przysłówek; stopniowanie przymiotnika; stopień równy przymiotnika (ekwatiw)

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