The latest research on risk factors and pathomechanisms of depression – review

Magdalena Kozyra, Martyna Nowińska, Jakub Klas, Michalina Pytka, Urszula Łopuszańska

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.11.005

Abstract


Introduction: Depression is a mental disorder that is increasingly being diagnosed in middle and more developed countries (MDC). Symptoms of depression in patients with severe depressive disorder (MDD) include sadness, regret, negative thoughts, anxiety, and more.

The aim of the study: The aim of the study was to summarize the latest research (from 2020) on factors related to the occurrence of depression, as well as the current findings on depression (also those related to the COVID-19 pandemic).

Material and method: For this purpose, scientific search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar were used.

Description of the state of knowledge: In 2020, apart from research on pathomechanisms and environmental factors, a large part of the research focused on the COVID-19 pandemic as a risk factor for the development of depression symptoms. Many studies from different parts of the world have confirmed that a pandemic can have a significant impact on the occurrence of depression.

Summary: There are many factors that can cause depression and it is important to keep them in mind both in everyday life and in clinical practice. Studies from various parts of the world have shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the experience of depressive symptoms, also in those who have not yet been diagnosed with MDD. The degree of severity of depressive symptoms depended on such factors as: financial situation, social isolation.


Keywords


depression; SARS-CoV2; genetic; markers; inflammation; patomechanism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sprawka K, Wysokiński A, Orzechowska A, Talarowska-Bogusz M, Typel D, Gruszczyński W (2008) Zaburzenia depresyjne i lękowe w okresie klimakterium. Psychiatr 5:99–104.

Brown T., Melchior L., Huba G. Level of burden among women diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance abuse. J. Psychoactive Drugs 1999; 31: 31–41.

2. Ross BM. ω-3 fatty acid deficiency in major depressive disorder is caused by the interaction between diet and genetically determined abnormality in phospholipid metabolism. Med Hypothes 2007; 68: 515–524.

Bujnowska-Fedak M, Grata-Borkowska U, Sapilak B. Otępienie i depresja u pacjentów w podeszłym wieku w Praktyce Lekarza Rodzinnego. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2012; 14(3): 349–353.

Ustun TB, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Chatterji S, Mathers C, Murray CJ. Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. Brit. J. Psychiatry 2004; 184: 386–392.

Judd LL, Paulus MP, Wells KB, Rapaport MH. Socioeconomic burden of subsyndromal depressive symptoms and major depression in a sample of the general population. Am. J. Psychiatry 1996; 153: 1411–1417.

Pużyński S. Depresje i samobójstwa. W: Pużyński S. red. Depresje i zaburzenia afektywne. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2005, s. 98–107.

Holtzheimer PE, Mayberg HS. Stuck in a rut: rethinking depression and its treatment. Trends Neurosci. 2011;34:1–9.

Zyss T. Nowe techniki stymulacji elektrycznej i magnetycznej w terapii depresji – porównanie z elektrowstrząsami i farmakoterapią. Psychiatria Polska 2010, tom XLIV, numer 6, strony 853–869.

Perzyński A. Poziom funkcjonowania i rozpoznania stawiane przez psychiatrów u pacjentów kierowanych do poradni zdrowia psychicznego przez lekarzy rodzinnych. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2013; 15(3): 368–369.

Ross BM. ω-3 fatty acid deficiency in major depressive disorder is caused by the interaction between diet and genetically determined abnormality in phospholipid metabolism. Med Hypothes 2007; 68: 515–524.

Lakhan SE, Vieira KF. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. Nutr J 2008; 7: 2.

Harbottle L, Schonfelder N. Nutrition and depression: a review of the evidence. J Ment Health 2008; 17(6): 576–587.

America A, Milling LS. The efficacy of vitamins for reducing or preventing depression symptoms in healthy individuals: natural remedy or placebo? J Behav Med 2008; 31: 157–167.

Lakhan SE, Vieira KF. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. Nutr J 2008; 7: 2.

Roberts SH, Bedson E, Hughes DA, et al. Folate Augmentation of Treatment – Evaluation for Depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 2007; 7: 65.

Pu J, Liu Y, Zhang H, Tian L, Gui S, Yu Y, Chen X, Chen Y, Yang L, Ran Y, Zhong X, Xu S, Song X, Liu L, Zheng P, Wang H, Xie P. An integrated meta-analysis of peripheral blood metabolites and biological functions in major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 20. doi: 10.1038/s41380-020-0645-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 31959849.

Iob E, Kirschbaum C, Steptoe A. Persistent depressive symptoms, HPA-axis hyperactivity, and inflammation: the role of cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 May;25(5):1130-1140. doi: 10.1038/s41380-019-0501-6. Epub 2019 Aug 21. PMID: 31435001; PMCID: PMC7192852.

Ting EY, Yang AC, Tsai SJ. Role of Interleukin-6 in Depressive Disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 22;21(6):2194. doi: 10.3390/ijms21062194. PMID: 32235786; PMCID: PMC7139933.

Chan SY, Probert F, Radford-Smith DE, Hebert JC, Claridge TDW, Anthony DC, Burnet PWJ. Post-inflammatory behavioural despair in male mice is associated with reduced cortical glutamate-glutamine ratios, and circulating lipid and energy metabolites. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 8;10(1):16857. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-74008-w. PMID: 33033375; PMCID: PMC7545201.

Bastiaanssen TFS, Cussotto S, Claesson MJ, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Gutted! Unraveling the Role of the Microbiome in Major Depressive Disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2020 Jan/Feb;28(1):26-39. doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000243. PMID: 31913980; PMCID: PMC7012351.

Nicolaou M, Colpo M, Vermeulen E, Elstgeest LEM, Cabout M, Gibson-Smith D, Knuppel A, Sini G, Schoenaker DAJM, Mishra GD, Lok A, Penninx BWJH, Bandinelli S, Brunner EJ, Zwinderman AH, Brouwer IA, Visser M. Association of a priori dietary patterns with depressive symptoms: a harmonised meta-analysis of observational studies. Psychol Med. 2020 Aug;50(11):1872-1883. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719001958. Epub 2019 Aug 14. PMID: 31409435; PMCID: PMC7477372.

An K, Zhao H, Miao Y, Xu Q, Li YF, Ma YQ, Shi YM, Shen JW, Meng JJ, Yao YG, Zhang Z, Chen JT, Bao J, Zhang M, Xue T. A circadian rhythm-gated subcortical pathway for nighttime-light-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Nat Neurosci. 2020 Jul;23(7):869-880. doi: 10.1038/s41593-020-0640-8. Epub 2020 Jun 1. PMID: 32483349.

Rehman, U., Shahnawaz, M. G., Khan, N. H., Kharshiing, K. D., Khursheed, M., Gupta, K., . . . Uniyal, R. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Indians in Times of Covid-19 Lockdown. Community Mental Health Journal. doi:10.1007/s10597-020-00664-x

Islam, M. A., Barna, S. D., Raihan, H., Khan, M. N., & Hossain, M. T. (2020). Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey. Plos One, 15(8). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238162

Ettman, C. K., Abdalla, S. M., Cohen, G. H., Sampson, L., Vivier, P. M., & Galea, S. (2020). Prevalence of Depression Symptoms in US Adults Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open, 3(9). doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19686

Bäuerle, A., Teufel, M., Musche, V., Weismüller, B., Kohler, H., Hetkamp, M., . . . Skoda, E. (2020). Increased generalized anxiety, depression and distress during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Germany. Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa106

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff. Cureus. doi:10.7759/cureus.7541

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934

Law, T. (2020, April 17). Medical workers fighting COVID-19 are facing a mental health crisis. https://time.com/5817435/covid-19-mental-health-coronavirus/

Alim S, Rabbani M, Karim E, Mullick M, Al Mamun A, Khan M. Assessment of depression, anxiety and stress among first year MBBS students of a public medical college, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;29(1):23–9.

Mamun MA, Hossain MS, Griffiths MD. Mental health problems and associated predictors among Bangladeshi students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2019.

Löwe, B., Decker, O., Müller, S., Brähler, E., Schellberg, D., Herzog, W., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2008). Validation and Standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the General Population. Medical Care, 46(3), 266-274. doi:10.1097/mlr.0b013e318160d093

Hinz, A., Klein, A. M., Brähler, E., Glaesmer, H., Luck, T., Riedel-Heller, S. G., . . . Hilbert, A. (2017). Psychometric evaluation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener GAD-7, based on a large German general population sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 338-344. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.012

Mazza, M. G., Lorenzo, R. D., Conte, C., Poletti, S., Vai, B., Bollettini, I., . . . Benedetti, F. (2020). Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 594-600. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.037

Tang, F., Liang, J., Zhang, H., Kelifa, M. M., He, Q., & Wang, P. (2020). COVID-19 related depression and anxiety among quarantined respondents. Psychology & Health, 1-15. doi:10.1080/08870446.2020.1782410


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=1080187162

https://europub.co.uk/journals/22625

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18
20170.07
20160.03

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
0.180.160.140.120.100.080.060.040.02201620172018
  

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism