Journal of Education, Health and Sport <p><em>Journal of Educa</em><em>tio</em><em>n, </em><em>Health and Sport</em> is a journal with an international reach, published in line with top standards applicable in scientific journals. Each issue contains original and review papers, and case reports of different medical specialties associated with the Education in Economy; Finances; Medicine; Biology; Physical Culture; Sport; Geography; Tourism.</p> <p><em>Journal of Educa</em><em>tio</em><em>n, </em><em>Health and Sport </em>is: a journal with an international reach.</p> <p>Our mission is to offer the scientific community a broad, fast and direct access to publish the latest results of the research areas that are developing rapidly and where there are changes with a high potential impact.</p> <p>All Articles submitted for publication will be peer-reviewed within 3 weeks.</p> <p>All accepted Articles will be published online before appearing in the print journal within 3 weeks from acceptance.</p> en-US The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons non-exclusive license (CC BY-ND 4.0). (W. Zukow) (W. Zukow) Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Anomalies of the cerebral arteries in military servants - participants of ATO-OOS, who suffered ischemic strokes <p>The analysis of medical histories of 129 patients aged 20 to 59 years, who suffered acute cerebrovascular disorders (AСVD) of the ischemic type (IT), and participated in ATO-JFO was carried out. Anomalies of cerebral arteries were found in all of them. A significant role of hypoplasia of the right posterior cerebral artery, aplasia of the posterior connective, left anterior cerebral and anterior connective, as well as pathological S-shaped tortuosity of the internal carotid artery, hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries and their combinations in the development of acute cerebrovascular disorders in ATO members was established.</p> Viktor Teshchuk, Nazarii Teshchuk, Oleksandr Ruskykh Copyright (c) 2021 Viktor Teshchuk, Nazarii Teshchuk, Oleksandr Ruskykh Fri, 22 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Abdominal pain syndrome in girls, adolescents and young women with tumor-like formations of the uterine adnexa <p>The article presents the clinical features of the complicated course of tumor-like formations of the uterine adnexa in girls, adolescents and young women.&nbsp; The characteristic symptoms of adnexal torsion are described. Topographic and anatomic features leading to torsion of ovarian cysts and uterine appendages, features of the surgical treatment of patients with complicated adnexal torsion are presented.</p> <p><strong>The aim </strong>was to study the frequency of occurrence of ovarian tumor-like formations and their complicated course in girls, adolescents and young women, improve early diagnosis and develop optimal methods of conserving surgical treatment of this pathology.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods. </strong>The study included 90 girls, adolescents and young women. Patients were divided into three groups. 1 group included 30 young women; the 2nd group consisted of 35 adolescents 13-17 years; 3 group consisted of 25 girls from 2 to 12 years. Diagnostic complex included clinical, special gynecological, comprehensive laboratory, ultrasound (including doppler ultrasound) research, computer and magnetic resonance imaging (if indicated).</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion. </strong>The final diagnosis of “Ovarian cyst” was verified in 46 of 90 patients (51,1 %): group 1 – 26 of 30 (86,6 %), in 2 – 18 of 35 (51,4 %), in 3 - 2 of 25 (8 %). It is established that the torsion of the uterine adnexa was detected in 44 of 90 patients: in 1 group – 13,3% of cases (4 of 30 young women), in 2 group – 48,5 % (17 of 35 adolescents), in 3 group – 92 % (23 of 25 girls). 76 surgeries were performed by laparoscopy with preservation of the ovarian reserve, 12 patients were treated conservatively with final diagnosis “Ovulatory syndrome” and “Retention cyst of the ovary”.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Ovarian cyst as the cause of abdominal pain is significantly more often diagnosed in young reproductive age than in patients of prepubertal and pubertal age. In girls and adolescent girls with symptoms of acute abdomen the torsion of intact uterine adnexa was significantly more common than in adult patients, due to anatomical features of the internal reproductive organs and more a mobile lifestyle inherent in this age group. Optimal treatment of functional ovarian cyst is complex conservative therapy, surgical treatment of ovarian cysts at a young age is conducted under strict indications, treatment of choice is laparoscopy.</p> I. Tuchkina, M. Tuchkina, S. Kiebashvili Copyright (c) 2021 I. Tuchkina, M. Tuchkina, S. Kiebashvili Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Relationship between NT-proBNP and the ejection fraction during intensive care variety in polytrauma patients with concomitant cardiac disorder <p><strong>The aim.</strong> To research the impact of chronic heart failure within different origin in case of polytrauma without myocardial injury.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The study the analyzed results of intensive care in 95 patients with polytrauma between the ages of 25 and 83. All patients were divided into 3 groups. Group C included 29 patients without chronic heart failure (CHF), groups C - 33 patients with CHF, the presence which was confirmed by the level of NT-proBNP more than 100 pg/ml, group E - 33 patients with CHF. Patients of groups K and C received standard intensive care, patients of group E additionally received ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMGPS). The study was carried out at three stages: during admission to the hospital, at the 3rd and 7th day. During admission, the level of Th I was determined in order to exclude traumatic or other acute myocardial lesions. At a concentration of Tn I more than 0.3 ng/ml, patients were not included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>. </strong>During admission, NT-proBNP level in all K-group patients did not exceed 87 pg/ml throughout the study. The ejection fraction (EF) was averaged 53,7±3,4%. The NT-proBNP dynamics were as followed by 116.4±7.0, 114.4±7.4, 109.1±8.5 pg/ml. The NT-proBNP and EF correlation coefficient was according to the stages -0.84±0.06, -0.74±0.08, -0.68±0.09. The value of the EF at hospitalization in group C was 47.9±4.7%, on the 3rd day 52.2±5.2% (p &lt; 0.001), and by 7th - until 56.8±6.9% (p &lt; 0.001). NT-proBNP level in E patients: 119.2±10.8, 113.2±8.1 (p= 0.02), 65.2±23.3 (p &lt; 0.0001). At stage 1 and 2, a strong negative correlation effect was observed (-0.78±0.07 and -0.77±0.07, accordingly), at the 3 stage the communication disappeared (0.07±0.17). Within admission EF level was 47.5±6.9 %.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The level of NT-proBNP authentically reflects the relationship with chronic heart failure. There is also a strong correlation between NT-proBNP and EF. Therefore, it is clear from the study that NT-proBNP has not undergone changes in group K (87 pg/ml), in contrast to patients of groups C (116.4±7.0,114.4±7.4, 109.1±8.5 pg/ml) and E (119.2±10.8, 113.2±8.1 (p =0.02), 65.2±23.3 (p &lt; 0.0001) who had concomitant disorder such as chronic heart failure.</p> Svitlana Lutska, Yulia Volkova, Kostiantyn Mykhnevych Copyright (c) 2021 Svitlana Lutska, Yulia Volkova, Kostiantyn Mykhnevych Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>Euthanasia is a difficult moral and controversial topic in society as well as among medical professionals. It is a topic avoided by society, but we hear about it more and more. In Poland, there is no universal consent for euthanasia, it is forbidden, although in some countries patients have the right to it. The main aim of the study was to find out about the opinions and attitudes of actively working nurses on euthanasia.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>The aim of this study was to find out about the opinions and attitudes of the respondents, <br />i.e. nursing staff, about euthanasia in the pilot studies.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong></p> <p>106 nurses employed in health facilities in the Krasnystaw and Chełm poviats were qualified for the study. The method of diagnostic survey was used in the work. The main research tool was a self-constructed, proprietary questionnaire. The survey questionnaire was evaluated. First, the assessment was made by three competent judges (doctors and a nurse), then a pilot study was carried out on 10 people. The questionnaire did not require any corrections. The pilot studies were not included in the main studies. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>106 people took part in the study: 34 women and 72 men. The average age of the respondents was 40 years. Statistical analysis showed that most of the respondents are opposed to euthanasia and its legalization in Poland. Significant differences occurred on the level of dependencies between socio-demographic factors determining the attitude towards euthanasia.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>The results of the conducted research show certain tendencies and dependencies that should be checked by expanding the research in a larger group of people working as nurses and nurses.</p> Zbigniew Orzeł, Sylwia Kwietniewska, Mariusz Sutryk, Kamila Niwińska , Blanka Kutnik, Ewa Guz Copyright (c) 2021 Zbigniew Orzeł, Sylwia Kwietniewska, Mariusz Sutryk, Kamila Niwińska , Blanka Kutnik, Ewa Guz Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Physiotherapy in a patient with colorectal cancer - preoperative management <p>During the surgical treatment of colorectal cancer, whether by laparoscopic or classic open method, the tissues in the abdominal cavity are traumatized. The cuts of the muscle fibers are associated with the disturbance of the tone of the postural muscles. A scar within the abdominal cavity also causes movement limitations in the form of restrictions in the mobility of the spine. The implementation of patient rehabilitation in the form of targeted physiotherapy before the procedure should be an indispensable element of the treatment of colorectal cancer.</p> <p>The aim of the study is to propose a therapy that uses the spine mobility test to diagnose deficits. The proposed preoperative therapy focuses mainly on improving the parameters of the spine's mobility. The paper presents examples of activities that can be used in therapy before surgery. A review of the available literature and own experience were used for the work.</p> <p>It can be concluded from the analyzed literature that physiotherapy in oncological patients is not very widespread and is neglected in the treatment process. Patients, by In the literature, before colorectal cancer removal surgery, they are not subjected to physical rehabilitation, which is associated with complications resulting from the course of the procedure.</p> <p>The process of rehabilitating patients after surgical treatment of colorectal cancer should take place in the pre-operative period. Physiotherapy should take into account the weakening of the muscle strength in the trunk and limitations of mobility caused by age. Rehabilitation should be aimed at restoring functionality.</p> Agnieszka Filarecka, Maciej Biernacki, Michał Jęchorek, Piotr Dudzic, Joanna Wyląg, Jarosław Lisiński, Karolina Polakowska-Mierzwa, Beata Nowak, Wiktor Jabłoński, Mateusz Hozakowski Copyright (c) 2021 Agnieszka Filarecka, Maciej Biernacki, Michał Jęchorek, Piotr Dudzic, Joanna Wyląg, Jarosław Lisiński, Karolina Polakowska-Mierzawa, Beata Nowak, Wiktor Jabłoński, Mateusz Hozakowski Wed, 27 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries with ice-hockey players <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Significant part of sports related concussions (SRC) are below the level of clinical diagnosis of SRC or are unnoticed. The most severe cumulative consequence of SRC is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The study of a wide range of clinical manifestations of CTE plays an important role.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>To establish long-term cognitive consequences of TBI in ice hockey players.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods </strong></p> <p>Retrospectively, we tested retired 20 ice hockey players. All athletes completed a questionnaire with their team doctor, which included: passport part, sports history, history of SRC, a mini mental scale evaluation (MMSE) and «the clock drawing test».</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>The results of the analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in the value of MMSE with an increase in SRC more than 1 during a sports career. Thus, in the group with 1 SRC the value of MMSE was 28.7 (1.38) points, while in the group with 2 or more SMS it was equal to 26.7 (1.15) points (p &lt;0.05). MMSE goalkeepers scored 26.6 (0.6) points, strikers – 27.8 (0.4) points, defenders – 28.2 (0.7) points (p&lt;0.05). The fact of hospitalization indicates clinically significant severity of a history of SRC. Having retrospectively collected data on hospitalization of hockey players after SRC, there was also a decrease in the value of MMSE in those with a history of hospitalization. Thus, in the group of people with hospitalization MMSE was 27.1 (1.39) points, without hospitalization – 27.9 (1.7). No statistically relationship between age and severity of cognitive impairment was found. Significant statistic connection (n = 20, correlation coefficient rs = – 0.40; p&lt;0.05) has been found between the number of SRC and the indicator and MMSE test and between number of SRC and «the clock drawing test» (n = 20, correlation coefficient rs = – 0.10; p &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions </strong></p> <p>Our study has outlined connection between cognitive impairment in ice-hockey players and SRC.</p> Volodymyr Sekretnyi, Oleh Nekhanevych Copyright (c) 2021 Volodymyr Sekretnyi, Oleh Nekhanevych Wed, 27 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Features of the intestinal microbiota functional status in early-aged children with rotavirus infection <p><strong>The aim</strong> is to assess the intestinal microflora functional and structural disorders in early-aged children in the dynamics of rotavirus infection by studying intestinal metabolites in faeces – short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The study included 60 breastfed children aged 1-24 months with rotavirus infection (the study group) and 30 healthy children, representative by age and sex (the comparison group). Determination of SCFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate) in faeces was carried out in all children of the study group three times in the dynamics of the disease (on the 3rd, 5th and 10th day) and in healthy children once.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The total concentration of SCFA in children with rotavirus infection was 3 and 2.2 times lower than in healthy children in the acute period of the disease (p&lt;0.01 on the 3rd and 5th day, respectively), increasing on the 10th day (p&lt;0.05), however, not reaching the normal level (p&lt;0.01). The decrease in the total pool of SCFA occurred due to all volatile acids (C2, C3, C4), the concentrations of which were lower than in healthy children (p&lt;0.01). Violation of the volatile acids ratio in their general pool was observed from the first days of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the form of an increase in the C2 relative concentration (p˂0.05) and a decrease in C3 and C4 profiles (p˂0.05). Correspondingly, a decrease in anaerobic index was noted. It was equal to 0.04 [0.01; 0.11] on the 3rd and 5th day of the disease, constituting only 1/5 of the healthy children values (p˂0,01), increasing on the 10th day to 0,09 [0,02; 0.17], however, remaining twice as lower than in children of the comparison group (p˂0,01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> There is a violation of the intestinal microflora functional condition in early-aged children from the first days of rotavirus infection, which is expressed by depletion of the total pool of SCFA and concentrations of each of them, as well as structural disorders of intestinal microbiocinosis in the form of reducing its anaerobiosis. These changes are most pronounced during the first five days of rotavirus gastroenteritis and last up to 10th day of illness.</p> N. Vorobiova, O. Usachova Copyright (c) 2021 N. Vorobiova, O. Usachova Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The importance of socio-demographic determinants and selected personality traits in shaping Poles' attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination <p>Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the level of particular personality traits and attitudes of Poles towards immunization, including against COVID-19, and to analyze potential predictors of these attitudes.</p> <p>Materials and methods: The online survey, conducted in September and October 2021, included 1466 individuals (50.6% female) aged 18 to 80 years (M = 42.81; SD = 12.46). The anonymous and voluntary online survey included original questions on attitudes toward immunization, including COVID-19 vaccination, rated on a 1-7 scale, past occurrence of NOP, and the Polish adaptation of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)-TIPI-PL test.</p> <p>Results: It was shown that significant predictors of the level of acceptance of immunization were female gender, size of residence, education and past occurrence of NOP. In case of personality traits it was agreeableness, emotional stability and openness to experience. Sources of knowledge about vaccination were also significantly related: friends' opinions, Internet and experts' opinions. A higher level of agreeableness and openness to experience was correlated with a higher level of acceptance of vaccinations, whereas a higher level of emotional stability was correlated with a lower level of acceptance of vaccinations. Female gender, higher education and size of town of residence predisposed to acceptance of immunizations, whereas occurrence of vaccine adverse effect predisposed to low level of acceptance.</p> Jarosław Paduch, Agnieszka Syrowatko, Michał Żołnierczuk Copyright (c) 2021 Jarosław Paduch, Agnieszka Syrowatko, Michał Żołnierczuk Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Children's feelings and attitude towards medical contacts <p><em>Introduction and purpose</em></p> <p>Medical procedures can be physically harmful and cause psychological trauma among young children, possibly resulting in certain lifelong aversion. The aim of the study was to evaluate children's feelings while undergoing minor medical procedures depending on age, gender and previous experience and to compare it with university students.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em></p> <p>We conducted a survey among 382 primary school children, as well as 334 university students. Questions concerned the frame of mind at the moment of examination, during dentist and general physician appointment, vaccination, hospitalization and condition of sore throat.</p> <p><em>Results</em></p> <p>The experience of hospital stay resulted in better feelings about possible future hospitalization in both groups, and about dentist appointment in the group of children. Girls and women declared lower mood during general physician appointment. Interestingly, in the group of children boys felt worse at the moment of survey, while in the group of students women felt so. The current frame of mind correlated with an appraisal of all other situations among students, whereas only with physician appointment and vaccination among children. All of above were statistically significant. For both groups, the most unpleasant condition was sore throat. However, in regards to medical procedures exclusively, vaccination appeared to be the most traumatic for children and hospitalization for students.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em></p> <p>Earlier experience and gender of children can affect their feelings about medical procedures. Presented analysis suggests that every medical should do their best to provide pleasant atmosphere for every child during medical contacts.</p> Bartosz Wojtera, Agnieszka Bugaj, Joanna Jackowska Copyright (c) 2021 Bartosz Wojtera, Agnieszka Bugaj, Joanna Jackowska Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Peculiarities of industrial nature management in the conditions of modern decentralization <p><strong>The aim of the study was </strong>to determine the features of industrial development in modern decentralization.</p> <p><strong>Materials</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>and</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>methods</strong><strong>. </strong>This study is based on the study of literature sources that characterize the problems of industrial nature management, features of development and operation, geospatial features of industry. The most well-known literary sources are analyzed, namely monographs, reporting materials, articles, reports concerning the problems of industrial nature management in the conditions of modern decentralization.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Decentralization contributes to the development of the economy, as the authorities respond more quickly to the demands and needs of society. Decentralization processes are improving the so-called investment climate, resulting in economic growth. That is why it is important to consider the factors influencing the development of industry in today's decentralization. We highlight the political and legal, economic, socio-demographic, technological factors of industrial development. On their example, we will consider features of development of the industry in the conditions of modern decentralization.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The analysis of development factors and structural transformations in industry has revealed a number of sharp contradictions that create many risks for the existence of the industry itself, as well as the economy and social sphere of the country. This poses a number of serious challenges to the country to overcome such contradictions as: the inconsistency of the general trend of the industry with the development of world industry in structural and technological terms; continuation of structural and organizational degradation of production with preservation of its export-raw material orientation and corresponding dependence on external conditions; increasing technological simplification and primitivization of production; inconsistency of domestic production with the needs of the population; the progressive decline of processing industries, including high-tech and fund-generating, for the domestic consumer market; high depreciation of fixed assets and unattractive investment of the industry, including for foreign investors; remoteness of the financial sector from servicing long-term investment needs of production; "Conservative" distribution of investment resources; lack of a mechanism for redistribution of investment resources in favor of promising industries. The identified contradictions and the resulting risks to the further functioning of the industry must be resolved as soon as possible for progressive changes and industrial development in the future.</p> Mykola Nazaruk, Lidiia Halianta Copyright (c) 2021 Mykola Nazaruk, Lidiia Halianta Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Morphological features of bone tissue regenerates in experimental animals when using osteotropic drugs for recovery bone defects <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>was to determine the effectiveness using of osteotropic drugs for the restoration of bone defects.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The model experiment was performing on male Wistar rats. The animals has been simulated a bone defect into which was implanted:"mp3 Osteobiol" (1st experimental group - 14 animals), PRP coated with fibrin glue (2nd experimental group - 13 animals) and PRP + "mp3 Osteobiol" (3rd experimental group - 15 animals). The histological material were staining with hematoxylin-eosin (according to Van – Gizon). Microscopic studies were performing on a Leica MDE optical microscope at a magnification of x 100, x 200.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>At the 60th day of observation, after implantation of "mp3 OsteoBiol" + PRP, a pronounced growth of fibrous, loose, not quite mature connective tissue was visualized, with the proliferation of giant multinucleated cells, macrophages, osteoblasts and the formation of osteoids. At the end of the experiment (90th day) in the bone regenerates of animals of group III noted the active formation of the newly formed bone lamellar structure, the formation of osteons, the bone marrow canal was filled with bone marrow.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> According to histological studies, it was found that our proposed composition, containing "mp3 OsteoBiol" and PRP, accelerated the process of bone regeneration, compared with the groups where the above agents were used alone, without inflammation, with the formation of bone, which has mature in nature.</p> Yulia Lysokon, Mykhailo Luchynskyi, Mariana Iskiv Copyright (c) 2021 Yulia Lysokon, Mykhailo Luchynskyi, Mariana Iskiv Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 New aspects of pedagogical activity in the distant form of pathological physiology teaching to medical university students <p>Distance learning (DL) is a completely new and unique form of education, which got forced to switch to by the current pandemic of coronavirus disease.</p> <p>Note that until now, distance learning technologies have been used at the department of general and clinical pathological physiology and some other departments of the Odessa National Medical University (ONMedU).</p> <p>The aim of this analytical article is to analyze the efficacy of ONMedU General and Clinical Pathological Physiology Department staff during the one and a half year period of the coronavirus infection pandemic with an accent to psychological approach to students modified teaching. The urgent need of time and the primary desire to protect students and their own lives during 2020-2021 requires us to improve our own pedagogical approaches in the further on-line teaching of students.</p> <p>We see success in systematic methodological work with students, the implementation of which will make it possible to evoke and increase their motivation to study histology. The importance of this methodological technique, supported in the senior years of medical universities by the integration of teaching theoretical and clinical disciplines, the approximation of teaching to specific clinical cases will help optimize the assimilation of morphological knowledge by students at least and, undoubtedly, in the near future will lead to a better assimilation of clinical disciplines.</p> <p>In connection with the ideas of individualized and developmental learning, the use of psychological capabilities of learning tools in the virtual environment brings both pedagogy and psychology to a new level of understanding the mediation of mental, creative, communicative and executive learning and learning activities.</p> <p>The use of distance learning helps the students to acquire skills of independent work, creates comfortable conditions for creativity, increases the creative and intellectual potential of the student through self-organization, the ability to interact with computer technology and make responsible decisions, creates favorable conditions for individual creative expression in the process of learning, for the development of the student's personality.</p> <p>The authors are convinced that the optimization and improvement of the educational process in medical universities is to draw students' attention to the problems that the medical community is dealing with on a daily basis today.</p> R. Vastyanov, P. Yermuraki, A. Stoyanov, O. Tiron, Ya. Beseda, I. Ostapenko, V. Dobrovolsky, D. Lapshin, A. Stecenko Copyright (c) 2021 R. Vastyanov, P. Yermuraki, A. Stoyanov, O. Tiron, Ya. Beseda, I. Ostapenko, V. Dobrovolsky, D. Lapshin, A. Stecenko Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and trolley problem <p>The truant dilemma is an extremely interesting moral problem. Although it is merely a product of fantasy, it contains the core to which our reasoning applies. However, it must be reformulated in such a way that it relates to current reality and is consistent with the latest developments in science.</p> <p>Such a proposal is presented above, taking into account both the latest achievements of theoretical sciences, including the humanities, and practical sciences, the sciences. In this way, the dilemma of the wagoner becomes a problem referring to current moral challenges and to present social relations.</p> Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Copyright (c) 2021 Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Concept of Personal Identity <p>Leibniz's concept of monads had of great importance for the development of the idealistic conception. Through Kant and his "Physical Monadology" she infiltrated into modern German philosophy. However, not only modern idealists referred to the concept of monads. Especially, that many scientific disciplines, which emanated from philosophy, related to the scope of idealistic notions, for example: psychology or sociology. German psychology and its creators have many often referred to monads theory. Freud, Fromm and Jung presented even their own point of views on this topic. Later theories, such as Lowe's theory, also refer to the concept of monads. These relations and the historical connections between monad theory and modern German psycho-philosophy are shown in this work.</p> Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Copyright (c) 2021 Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Epidemiology of colorectal cancer (C18-C21) in Poland <p><strong>Introduction and purpose: </strong>Colorectal cancer (C18-C21) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the Polish population. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological situation of colorectal cancer in Poland, based on epidemiological data published by <em>Polish National Cancer Registry, the Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology </em>and<em> ECIS - European Cancer Information System.</em></p> <p><strong>A brief description of the state of knowledge: </strong>In 2018, colorectal cancer was the third most common malignant neoplasm of men in Poland and the second most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm in women. In the same year, almost 12,500 deaths due to colorectal cancer were registered in Poland. At that time, this cancer was the second most common cause of death from malignant neoplasms among men and the third among women. In terms of 5-year survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, despite the improvement observed over the years, Poland is still one of the last places in Europe.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Colorectal cancer, due to its prevalence, is a serious health problem for Polish society. The scale of morbidity and deaths from these cancers, despite the growing medical knowledge and the improved access to modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods, is still worrying. There is an urgent need to intensify activities in the area of cancer prevention at the population level.</p> Zuzanna Jaroszyńska, Katarzyna Wiśniewska Copyright (c) 2021 Zuzanna Jaroszyńska, Katarzyna Wiśniewska Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Towards to the mind-body problem <p>The mind-body problem is one of the most difficult challenges of modern science. An</p> <p>interesting attempt at providing a reductionist model of reality was made in the 18th century</p> <p>by Ruder Josip Bošković. The attractiveness of this model lies in the fact that it does not</p> <p>readily fit into any of the above categorizations. Although frequently associated with the third</p> <p>- a fact that laid it open to violent criticism, causing the philosopher serious trouble - it stands</p> <p>apart as an independent theory. For, according to Bošković, reality is neither material nor</p> <p>spiritual. Nor is it a union of both of these orders.</p> Adam Skowron, Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Copyright (c) 2021 Adam Skowron, Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Biological medicinal products: reference and biosimilar products – selected issues <p>Biological therapies are being used in many chronic conditions. Development of biosimilar medicines gives chances for wider access to biological treatment. The aim of the review was to present legal regulations of the marketing authorisation of biological medicines in the context of biosimilars medicines. The article focuses on the legislation of the European Union, which was established on the beginning of the XXI century and is very complex and strict. In the first part of the article were described basic terms in this field, such as biological medicine, biosimilar medicine, reference medicine and generic medicie. It also shows differnces between biosimilar and generic medicines. Main difference concerns the manufacturing process, because of which biosimilar will never be identical to the reference medicine. Next part concentrates on the proces of registration of new biological medicines, especially in the area of medicines’ indications to use and controversies related to them. The last part presents issues of the safety monitoring of biological medicines on european level. The purpose of european law in that field is to guarantee every registred biologic therapy is safe for the patients.</p> Bartosz Kobuszewski Copyright (c) 2021 Bartosz Kobuszewski Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Evidence Based Public Health on the example of vaccinations - theory and practice <p>The aim of the review was to present one of the basic tools of public health, which are vaccinations, from the point of view of scientific evidence regarding their safety. This problem is closely related to health safety and the constitutional obligation of the state to ensure the protection of health and life (Article 68 of the Polish Constitution). It is important that, unlike other medicines, vaccinations are given to healthy people, and many of them are given to children. The first part of the article shows the impact of scientific discoveries in the field of infectious diseases, including discoveries in the field of vaccinations, on the prevention of infections and the development of legal regulations ensuring patient safety. The history of the legislation on public health and the current legal solutions of the European Union and Poland are also briefly presented. Part two introduces Evidence Based Public Health (EBPH) practice, encompassing complex processes that aim to improve population health and reduce the burden of disease. The last element of the work is the quantitative analysis of adverse vaccine reactions (NOP) reported in recent years in Poland, the monitoring of which is the basic tool for assessing vaccine safety in actual clinical practice. The current reporting procedure was also presented.</p> Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal, Bartosz Kobuszewski Copyright (c) 2021 Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal, Bartosz Kobuszewski Mon, 04 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200