Cardiovascular Features of Chronic Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy on Programmed Hemodialysis

Zoriana І. Litovkina, Oleksandr B. Susla

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.10.013

Abstract


Introduction and purpose: It is important today to determine the factors that form a very high cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with kidney damage on programmed hemodialysis (HD). The aim of the study has been to determine the cardiovascular features of chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (ED) in HD patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Material and methods: The study has included 136 patients treated with HD (men, 78; age, 53.9±1.0 year, duration of HD, 47.6±4.2 months). Depending on the presence/absence of type 2 diabetes, they have been divided into two groups: the first – without DN (n=88); the second – with DN (n=48). The intensity of inflammation has been assessed by the serum content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FG) and albumin. Vasomotor function of the brachial artery (BA) has been determined using a test with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent vasodilation, (EDVD)). The content of nitrite anions (NO2-) and the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in blood plasma have been measured. Results: In patients with DN, TNF-α (p=0.002), CRP (p<0.001) and FG (p=0.008) significantly exceeded those in non-diabetics. The average value of EDVD BA (p=0.001), NO2- (p=0.008) in patients of the second group has been lower, and the number of CECs – higher (p<0.001) compared with the first group. Vasoconstriction (EDVD<0%) and undilatation (EDVD=0%) reactions in the case of DN have been registered more often (52.1 vs. 19.1%, p<0.001). In patients with DN for the first time have been established correlations between CECs and TNF-α (Rs=0.73, p<0.001), CRP (Rs=0.53, p<0.001), FG (Rs=0.53, p<0.001), albumin (Rs=-0.43, p=0.002). Conclusions: Chronic inflammation in the constellation with endothelial damage in patients with DN in the case of HD is obviously an important factor in cardiovascular remodeling, a predictor of progression of cardiovascular complications.


Keywords


programmed hemodialysis; diabetic nephropathy; cardiovascular risk; proinflammatory mediators; endothelial damage; pathogenesis

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References


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