Adiponectin as novel biomarker of endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistance and obesity – a narrative review

Joanna Szydełko, Paulina Trojanowska, Izabela Dąbrowska, Magdalena Szydełko-Gorzkowicz, Michał Litwińczuk

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.09.071

Abstract


Introduction: Obesity is a chronic fatal disease with still growing incidence among children, adolescents, and adults worldwide. The subclinical inflammatory process together with hipoadiponectinemia may lead to the development of various comorbidities, including cardiovascular complications. That is why, the relationship between adipose tissue activity, obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial function is in high interest and an object of extensively studies.

Aim of the study: This article summarizes the current knowledge on the anti-atherogenic effects of adiponectin and its properties to improve endothelial function in obesity-related insulin resistance.

Description of knowledge: Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived pleiotropic hormone with anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, and insulin-sensitizing actions, is not only engaged in modulation of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or coronary artery disease, but the latest researches highlight its role in improving vascular wall integrity. It affects complex signaling pathways in endothelial cells and influence inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that agents leading to increase in adiponectin levels, simultaneously contribute to decrease insulin resistance, and improve endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusions: Adiponectin may be a predictive factor of endothelial dysfunctionality and vascular remodeling development in the group of patients with overweight, obesity, and insulin resistance. Discovering pharmacological agents and non-pharmacological interventions that increase the level of circulating adiponectin will become novel and innovative therapeutic strategy to ameliorate obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, further studies are required to determine the exact role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases.


Keywords


adiponectin; insulin resistance; obesity; vascular dysfunction

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