The influence of stress on the occurrence of bruxism

Martyna Nowińska, Magdalena Kozyra, Patryk Zimnicki, Justyna Kaczerska, Natalia Śmiech, Joanna Milanowska



Introduction: Bruxism is defined as a stereotypical hyperactivity of the masseter characterized by clenching and grinding of the teeth. Etiopathology of bruxism still remains unclear, is one of the least known dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. However, a lot of research have shown the correlation between stress and bruxism.

The aim of the study: Paying attention to the correlation between the occurrence of stress and the presence of bruxism in the population.

Material and method: The research was done by the usage of the PubMed and Google Scholar articles about the topic of: bruxism; stress; epidemiology; characteristic; psychotherapy;

Description of the state of knowledge: Psychosocial factors such as state anxiety and trait anxiety, alexithymia, and perceived stress are as important as somatic causes in the occurrence and maintenance of bruxism. Impact of stress is especially noticeable during research conducted on students. Management of bruxism should embrace dental, pharmacological and psychobehavioural procedures. It requires a wider analysis in the aspect of concomitant disorders. The involvement of different specialists is required.

Summary: We can undoubtedly say that stress is an inherent condition that accompanies us in everyday life. However, it is important to pay attention to its coexistence with bruxism and its harmful effect not only on organs such as the heart or stomach, but also the stomatognathic system - which is confirmed by many studies. However, the multidimensionality and complexity of the etiology of bruxism require further considerations and research.


bruxism; stress; psychotherapy

Full Text:



Ash M.M., Ramfjord S.P.: Occlusion. Vol. 4, Philadelphia, 1995, W.B. Saunders, p. 500.

Ramfjord S.P.: Dysfunctional temporomandibular joint and muscle pain. J Prosthet Dent 11 : 353-362, 1961.

Guichet N.E.: Occlusion: a teaching manual. Anaheim, CA, 1977, The Denar Corporation, p. 500.

Ramfjord S.: Bruxism: a clinical and electromyographic study. Am J Dent Assoc 62 : 21-28, 1961.

Rugh J.D., Barghi N., Drago C.J.: Experimental occlusal discrepancies and nocturnal bruxism. J Prosthet Dent 51 : 548-553, 1984.

Kardachi B.J., Bailey J.O., Ash M.M.: A comparison of biofeedback and occlusal adjustment on bruxism. J Periodontol 49 : 367-372, 1978.

Yemm R.: Cause and effect of hyperactivity of the jaw muscles. (w:) Bayant E (red.): NIH Publication 79-1845. Bethesda, MD, 1979, National Institutes of Health.

Rugh J.D., Solberg W.K.; Electromyographic studies of bruxist behawior before and during treatment. J Calif Dent Assoc 3: 56-59, 1975.

Solberg W.K., Clark G.T., Rugh J.D.: Nocturnal electromyographic evaluation of bruxism patients undergoing short term splint therapy. J Oral Rehabil 2 : 215-223, 1975.

Clark G.T., Beemsterboer P.L, Solberg W.K., Rugh J.D.: Nocturnal electromyographic evaluation of myofascial pain dysfunction in patients undergoing occlusal splint therapy. Am J Dent Assoc 99 : 607-611, 1979.

F. Lobbezoo, J. Ahlberg, K. G. Raphael et al., “International consensus on the assessment of bruxism: report of a work in progress,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 837–844, 2018.

G. Pingitore, V. Chrobak, and J. Petrie, “The social and psychologic factors of bruxism,” 7e Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 443–446, 1991.

T. Kampe, G. Edman, T. Tagdae, and S. Karlsson, “Personality traits in a group of subjects with long-standing bruxing behaviour,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 588–593, 1997.

O. F. Molina and J. dos Santos Jr., “Hostility in TMD/bruxism patients and controls: a clinical comparison study and preliminary results,” Cranio, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 282–288, 2002.

J. Ahlberg, A. Savolainen, M. Rantala, H. Lindholm, and M. Kononen, “Reported bruxism and biopsychosocial symptoms: a longitudinal study,” Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 307–311, 2004.

A. Nakata, M. Takahashi, T. Ikeda, M. Hojou, and S. Araki, “Perceived psychosocial job stress and sleep bruxism among male and female workers,” Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 201–209, 2008.

J. Ahlberg, M. Rantala, A. Savolainen et al., “Reported bruxism and stress experience,” Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 405–408, 2002.

H. Abekura, M. Tsuboi, T. Okura, K. Kagawa, S. Sadamori, and Y. Akagawa, “Association between sleep bruxism and stress sensitivity in an experimental psychological stress task,” Biomedical Research, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 395–399, 2011.

J. Ahlberg, F. Lobbezoo, K. Ahlberg et al., “Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults,” Medicina Oral Patolog´ıa Oral Y Cirugia Bucal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. e7–e11, 2013.

M. K. A. Selms, F. Lobbezoo, D. J. Wicks, H. L. Hamburger, and M. Naeije, “Craniomandibular pain, oral parafunctions, and psychological stress in a longitudinal case study,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 738–745, 2004.

A. C. Alves, J. C. Alchieri, and G. A. Barbosa, “Bruxism. Masticatory implications and anxiety,” Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2013.

A. R. Sutin, A. Terracciano, L. Ferrucci, and P. T. Costa, “Teeth grinding: is emotional stability related to bruxism?,” Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 402–405, 2010.

E. Winocur, N. Uziel, T. Lisha, C. Goldsmith, and I. Eli, “Selfreported bruxism—associations with perceived stress, motivation for control, dental anxiety and gagging,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2011.

M. A. Ommerborn, M. Giraki, C. Schneider et al., “Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation,” International Journal of Oral Science, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 141–145, 2012.

Balasubramaniam R, Klasser GD, Cistulli PA, Lavigne GJ: The link between sleep bruxism, sleep disordered breathing and temporomandibular disorders: an evidencebased review. J Dental Sleep Med 2014; 1: 27-37.

Lobbezoo F1, Ahlberg J, Glaros AG, Kato T, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ, de Leeuw R, Manfredini D, Svensson P, Winocur E: Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus. J Oral Rehabil 2013; 40.

Manfredini D, Serra-Negra J, Carboncini F, Lobbezoo F: Current Concepts of Bruxism. Int J Prosthodont 2017; 30 (5): 437-438. doi: 10.11607/ijp.5210.

Mankiewicz M., Panek H.: Prevalence of Parafunctions of the Masticatory System in Adolescents. Dent. Med. Probl. 2005, 42, 1, 95–101.

Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally. J Oral Rehab 2001;28:1085–91.

Ziółkowska-Kochan M., Kochan J., Pracka D., Dróżdż W., Borkowska A.: Bruxism – a multidisciplinary problem. Czas. Stomatol., 2007, LX, 6, 391-397.

Nunn M.E., Harrel S.K.: The effect of occlusal discrepancies on periodontis. Relationship between occlusal discrepancies to initial clinical parameters. J. Periodont, 2000; 72: 485-494.

Alves CA, Alchieri CJ, Barbarosa ASG: Bruxism. Masticatory implications and anxiety. Acta Odontol Latinoam 2013; 26: 15-22.

Veiga N, Angelo T, Ribeiro O, Baptista A: Bruxism – Literature review. Int J Dent Oral Health. 2015; 1: 5.

Reddy SV, Kumar MP, Sravanthi D, Mohsin AH, Anuhya V: Bruxism: A literature review. J Int Oral Health 2014; 6: 105-109.

Saczuk K., Wilmont P., Pawlak Ł., Łukomska-Szymańska M.: Bruxism: Aetiology and diagnostics. A literature review. Protet Stomatol, 2018; 68 (4): 456-463.

Bader G, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism; an overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder: review article. Sleep Med Rev. 2000; 4 (1): 27–43.

Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K. Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. J Oral Rehabil. 2008; 35 (7): 476–94.

Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally. J Oral Rehabil. 2001; 28 (12): 1085–91.

Winocur E, Uziel N, Lisha T, Goldsmith C, Eli I. Self-reported Bruxism— associations with perceived stress, motivation for control, dental anxiety and gagging. J Oral Rehabil. 2011; 38 (1): 3–11.

Slavicek R.: Réflexion sur les soi-disant parafonctions. Rev. Orthop. Dentofac., 1996; 30: 75-88

Molin C., Edman G., Schalling D.: Psychological studies of patients with mandibular pain dysfunction syndrome. II. Tolerance for experimentally induced pain. Sven Tandlak Tidskr 66 : 15-23, 1973.

Hagberg C., Hagberg M., Kopp S.: Musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosocial factors among patients with craniomandibular disorders. Acta Odontol Scand 52 : 170-177, 1994.

Phillips J.M ., Gatchel R.J., Wesley A .L, Ellis E. III : Clinical implications of sex in acute temporomandibular disorders. J Am Dent Assoc 132: 49-57, 2001.

Malow R.M., Olson R.E., Greene C.S.: Myofascial pam dysfunction syndrome: a psychophysiological disorder. (w:) Golden C.. Alcaparras S.. Strider F., Graber B. (red.): Applied techniques in behavioral medicine. New York. 1981, Grune & Stratton, p. 101-133.

Melzack R.: Neurophysiological foundations of pain. (w:) Sternback R A (red.): The psychology of pain. Vol. 2, New York, 1986. Raven Press, p. 1-25.

Rugh J.D.: Psychological components of pain. Dent Clin North Am 31: 579-594, 1987.

Riley III J.L., Gilbert G.H: Orofacial pain symptoms: an interaction between age and sex. Pain, 2001; 90: 245–256.

Bader G, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism; an overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder: review article. Sleep Med Rev. 2000; 4 (1): 27–43.

Granada S, Hicks RA. Changes in self-reported incidence of nocturnal bruxism in college students: 1966–2002. Percept Mot Skills. 2003; 97 (3 Pt 1): 777–8.

Hinton JW, Rotheiler E. Stress, health and performance in university students. Z Gesamte Hyg. 1990; 36 (12): 634–5.

Reifman A, Dunkel-Schetter C. Stress, structural social support, and wellbeing in university students. J Am Coll Health. 1990; 38 (6): 271–7.

Ross SE, Niebling BC, Heckert TM. Sources of stress among college students. Social Psychology. 1999; 61 (5): 841–6.

Quadri MF, Mahnashi A, Al Almutahhir A, Tubayqi H, Hakami A, Arishi M, Alamir A. Association of awake bruxism with khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress among jazan university students. Int J Dent. 2015; 30: 2015.

Ahlberg J, Rantala M, Savolainen A, Suvinen T, Nissinen M, Sarna S, et al. Reported bruxism and stress experience. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2002; 30 (6): 405–8

Westrup DA, Keller SR, Nellis TA, Hicks RA. Arousability and bruxism in male and female college students. Percept Mot Skills. 1992; 75 (3 Pt 1): 796–8.

Hicks RA, Conti PA, Bragg HR. Increases in nocturnal bruxism among college students implicate stress. Med Hypotheses. 1990; 33 (4): 239–40.

Hicks RA, Conti PA. Changes in the incidence of nocturnal bruxism in college students: 1966–1989. Percept Mot Skills. 1989; 69 (2): 481–2.

Hicks RA, Chancellor C. Nocturnal bruxism and type A-B behavior in college students. Psychol Rep. 1987; 60 (3 Pt 2):1211–4.

Okeson J.P.: Leczenie dysfunkcji narządu żucia i zaburzeń zwarcia. Drobek W. (red), Vol. 1, Lublin, 2005. Czelej, p. 352-353.

Restrepo CC, Alvarez E, Jaramillo C, Vélez C, Valencia I. Effects of psychological techniques on bruxism in children with primary teeth. J Oral Rehabil. 2001 Apr; 28(4): 354-60. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2001.00663.x. PMID: 11350589.

Valiente López M, van Selms MK, van der Zaag J, Hamburger HL, Lobbezoo F. Do sleep hygiene measures and progressive muscle relaxation influence sleep bruxism? Report of a randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2015 Apr;42 (4): 259-65. doi: 10.1111/joor.12252. Epub 2014 Nov 21. PMID: 25413839.

Giraki M, Schneider C, Schäfer R, Singh P, Franz M, Raab WH, Ommerborn MA. Correlation between stress, stress-coping and current sleep bruxism. Head Face Med. 2010 Mar 5;6:2. doi: 10.1186/1746-160X-6-2. PMID: 20205705; PMCID: PMC2841116.

Rugh J.D., Robbins J.W .: Oral habits disorders. (w:) Ingersol B. (red.): Behavioral aspects in dentistry. New York, 1982, Appleton-Century-Crofts, p. 179-202.

Dellemijn P.L., Fields H.L: Do benzodiazepines have a role in chronic pain management? Pain 57: 137-152, 1994.

Denucci D.J., Dionne R.A., Dubner R.: Identifying a neurobiologic basis for drug therapy in TMDs. J Oral Rehabil 127: 581-593, 1996.

Rugh J.D., Harlan J.: Nocturnal bruxism and temporomandibular disorders. (w:) Jankovic J., Tolosa E. (red.): Facial dyskinesias. Vol 49. New York, 1988, Raven Press, p. 329-341.

Clark G.T., Beemsterboer P.L, Solberg W.K., Rugh J.D.: Nocturnal electromyographic evaluation of

myofasciail pain dysfunction in patients undergoing occlusal splint therapy. J Oral Rehabil 99: 607-611, 1979.

Solberg W.IG, Clark G.T., Rugh J.D.: Nocturnal electromyographic evaluation of bruxism patients undergoing short term splint therapy. J Oral Rehabil 2: 215-223, 1975.

Carlson C.R.. Okeson J.P., Falace D A , Nitz A.J., Curran S.L i wsp.: Comparison of psychologic and physiologic functioning between patients with masticatory muscle pain and matched controls. J Orofacial Pain 7: 15-22, 1993.

Gross S.M., Vacchiano R.B.: Personality correlates of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction. J Prosthet Dent 30: 326-329, 1973.

Molin C., Edman G., Schalling D.: Psychological studies of patients with mandibular pain dysfunction syndrome. II. Tolerance for experimentally induced pain. Sven Tandlak Tidskr 66: 15-23, 1973.

Moulton R.: Psychiatric considerations in maxillofacial pain. Am J Dent Assoc 51: 408-414, 1955.

Solberg W.K., Rugh J.D.: The use of bio-feedback devices in the treatment of bruxism . J South Calif Dent Assoc 40: 852-853, 1972.

Kydd W .L: Psychosomatic aspects of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. J Oral Rehabil 59: 31-44, 1959.

McCal C.M.J., Szmyd L , Ritter R.M.: Personality charactenstics in patients w ith temporomandibular pam and dysfunction syndrome: psychosocial, health behawior, physical illness and injury. J Oral Rehabil 62: 694-698, 1961.

Marbach J.J., Lennon M.C., Dohrenwend B.P.: Candidate risk factors for temporomandibular pain and dysfunction syndrome: psychosocial, health behawior, physical illness and injury. Pam 34: 139-151, 1988.

Carlson C.R., Reid K.I., Curran S.L, Studts J., Okeson J.P. i wsp.: Psychological and physiological parameters ot masticatory muscle pain. Pain 76: 297-307, 1998.

Madland G., Feinmann C., Newman S.: Factors associated with anxiety and depression in facial arthromyalgia. Pain 84: 225-232, 2000.

Glaros A.G.: Emotional factors in temporomandibular joint disorders. J Indiana Dent Assoc 79: 20-23, 2000.

Mongini F., Ciccone G., Ibertis F„ Negro C.: Personality characteristics and accompanying symptoms in temporomandibular joint dysfunction, headache, and facial pain. J Orofac Pain 14: 52-58, 2000.

Kinney R.K., Gatchel R.J., Ellis E, Holt C.: Major psychological disorders in chronic TMD patients: implications for successful management. Am J Dent Assoc 123: 49-54, 1992.

Meldolesi G., Picardi A., Accivile E , Toraldo di Francia R.. Biondi M.: Personality and psychopathology in patients with temporomandibular joint paindysfunction syndrome. A controlled investigation. Psychother Psychosom 69: 322-328, 2000.

Rugh J.D., Solberg W.K.: Electromyographic studies of bruxist behavior before and during treatment. J Calif Dent Assoc 3: 56-59, 1975.

Rugh J.D., Solberg W.K.: Psychological implications in temporomandibular pain and dysfunction. Oral Sci Rev 7: 3-30, 1976.

Moss R.A., Adams H.E: The assessment of personality, anxiety and depression in mandibular pain dysfunction subjects. J Oral Rehabil 11: 233-235, 1984.

Pierce C.J., Chrisman K., Bennett M.E., Close J.M.: Stress, anticipatory stress, and psychologic measures related to sleep bruxism. J Orofac Pain 9: 51-56, 1995.

Kwok KL, Poon G, Chau KW. Habitual snoring and sleep bruxism in a paediatric outpatient population in Hong Kong. Singapore Med J 2002; 43: 554–556.

Restrepo CC, Vasquez LM, Alvarez M, Valencia I. Personality traits and temporomandibular disorders in a group of children with bruxing behaviour. J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 585–593.

Shiner R, Caspi A. Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: measurement, development, and consequences. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003; 44: 2–32.

Cleary A, Fitzgerald M, Nixon E. From child to adult: a longitudinal study of Irish children and their family. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2006; 11: 123–126.

Ortiz MA, Tello FP, Gandara MV. Dimensionalidad del cuestionario de los cinco grandes (BFQ‐N) em poblacion infantil española. Psicothema 2005; 17: 286–291.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism