Irritable bowel syndrome - risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment options

Magdalena Wójcik, Justyna Dąbrowska, Julita Szarpak, Damian Bator, Hubert Nieścior, Joanna Milanowska



Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic common gastrointestinal disorder. It contributes to the burden of patients and society due to direct medical costs, lost productivity and also affects the quality of life. The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome is not fully understood which makes it difficult to treat patients more effectively.

The aim of the study: The purpose of this systemic review was to collect and analyse current data of risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment options of irritable bowel syndrome.

Material and method: Standard criteria were used to review the literature data. The search of articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar database was carried out using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota, treatment

Description of the state of knowledge: Altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, post infectious reactivity, brain-gut interactions, alteration in fecal microflora, bacterial overgrowth, food sensitivity, carbohydrate malabsorption, and intestinal inflammation are considered to contribute to the onset of IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness and disease aims to help understand better the bi-directional relationship between mind and body. Patients suffering from IBS use pharmaceutical treatment but also complementary and alternative medicine. Probiotic and fecal microbiota transplantation are gut microbiota oriented treatment options.

Summary:  The pathophysiology of IBS is not clear . Alterations in bidirectional brain-gut microbiota interactions are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of well-known brain-gut disorders such as IBS. Human microbiome research continues to expand, although it still requires more study.


irritable bowel syndrome; gut microbiota; treatment

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