Predictors associated with studies and lifestyle and subjective feeling of depressive symptoms among Polish medical students

Łukasz Bryliński, Agata Bura, Piotr Duda, Paulina Drożak, Katarzyna Augustowska, Martyna Drożak



Introduction and objective. Depression is a disorder that medical students are subjected to. The aim of the research was to investigate the occurrence of subjective feeling of depressive symptoms among Polish medical students during the course of medical studies and to determine predictors of this phenomenon that are associated with studies and lifestyle. Material and method. The research tool was author’s questionnaire. 1023 medical students from each year of medical education and different Polish universities took part in the study. Results. 52.79% of the respondents had noticed symptoms that might had pointed to depression during the course of their medical studies. The research suggests that predictors of subjective feeling of depressive symptoms among medical students are: repeating a university subject, repeating a year in university, low self-assessment of academic performance during studying, considering dropping out of university, low satisfaction from the choice of studying medicine, reaching for alcohol in order to de-stress or discharge negative emotions, not having interests that enable to relax, not doing sports regularly, not participating in social gatherings often enough, not sleeping enough, having problems with maintaining stable body weight and not being religious. Conclusions. There are many lifestyle and studies connected factors associated with depressive symptoms among Polish medical students. The study suggests that it is important for students and their communities to pay attention to the emergence of them in order to improve the well-being of students.


depression; medical students

Full Text:



GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 [published correction appears in Lancet. 2019 Jun 22;393(10190):e44]. Lancet. 2018;392(10159):1789-1858. doi:10.1016(S0140-6736(18)32279-7

Rosal MC, Ockene IS, Ockene JK, Barrett SV, Ma Y, Hebert JR. A longitudinal study of students' depression at one medical school. Acad Med. 1997;72(6):542-546. doi:10.1097(00001888-199706000-00022. PMID: 9200590

Rotenstein LS, Ramos MA, Torre M, et al. Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA. 2016;316(21):2214-2236. doi:10.1001(jama.2016.17324. PMID: 27923088

Malhi GS, Mann JJ. Depression. Lancet. 2018;392(10161):2299-2312. doi:10.1016(S0140-6736(18)31948-2. PMID: 30396512

Silva V, Costa P, Pereira I, et al. Depression in medical students: insights from a longitudinal study. BMC Med Educ. 2017;17(1):184. Published 2017 Oct 10. doi:10.1186(s12909-017-1006-0. PMID: 29017594

Puthran R, Zhang MW, Tam WW, Ho RC. Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Med Educ. 2016;50(4):456-468. doi:10.1111(medu.12962. PMID: 26995484

Moutinho IL, Maddalena NC, Roland RK, Lucchetti AL, Tibiriçá SH, Ezequiel OD, Lucchetti G. Depression, stress and anxiety in medical students: A cross-sectional comparison between students from different semesters. PMID: 28225885.

Suwalska J, Suwalska A, Szczygieł M, Łojko D. Medical students and stigma of depression. Part 2. Self-stigma. Studenci medycyny a stygmatyzacja z powodu depresji. Część II. Autostygmatyzacja. Psychiatr Pol. 2017;51(3):503-513. doi:10.12740(PP(OnlineFirst(67373. PMID: 28866720

Fahrenkopf AM, Sectish TC, Barger LK, et al. Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;336(7642):488-491. doi:10.1136(bmj.39469.763218.BE. PMID: 18258931

Moreira de Sousa J, Moreira CA, Telles-Correia D. Anxiety, Depression and Academic Performance: A Study Amongst Portuguese Medical Students Versus Non-Medical Students. Acta Med Port. 2018 Sep 28;31(9):454-462. doi: 10.20344(amp.9996. Epub 2018 Sep 28. PMID: 30332368.

Çelik N, Ceylan B, Ünsal A, Çağan Ö. Depression in health college students: relationship factors and sleep quality. Psychol Health Med. 2019 Jun;24(5):625-630. doi: 10.1080(13548506.2018.1546881. Epub 2018 Nov 21. PMID: 30463430

B Y Fogleman, R Vander Zwagg. Demographic, situational, and scholastic factors in medical school attrition. South Med J. 1981 May;74(5):602-6.doi: 10.1097(00007611-198105000-00025. PMID: 7244720

Dyrbye LN, Harper W, Moutier C, Durning SJ, Power DV, Massie FS, Eacker A, Thomas MR, Satele D, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD. A multi-institutional study exploring the impact of positive mental health on medical students' professionalism in an era of high burnout. Acad Med. 2012 Aug;87(8):1024-31. doi: 10.1097(ACM.0b013e31825cfa35. PMID: 22722352

Bert F, Lo Moro G, Corradi A, et al. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Italian medical students: The multicentre cross-sectional "PRIMES" study. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231845. Published 2020 Apr 17. doi:10.1371(journal.pone.0231845. PMID: 32302354

Blake H, Stanulewicz N, Mcgill F. Predictors of physical activity and barriers to exercise in nursing and medical students. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(4):917-929. doi:10.1111(jan.13181. PMID: 27731886

Aktekin M, Karaman T, Senol YY, Erdem S, Erengin H, Akaydin M. Anxiety, depression and stressful life events among medical students: a prospective study in Antalya, Turkey. Med Educ. 2001;35(1):12-17. doi:10.1046(j.1365-2923.2001.00726.x. PMID: 11123589

Pan XF, Wen Y, Zhao Y, Hu JM, Li SQ, Zhang SK, Li XY, Chang H, Xue QP, Zhao ZM, Gu Y, Li CC, Zhang YQ, Sun XW, Yang CX, Fu C. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities. Psychol Health Med. 2016 Oct;21(7):882-9. doi: 10.1080(13548506.2015.1127395. Epub 2015 Dec 21. PMID: 26691910

Newbury-Birch D, Walshaw D, Kamali F. Drink and drugs: from medical students to doctors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 Nov 1;64(3):265-70. doi: 10.1016(s0376-8716(01)00128-4. PMID: 11672941

Wolf MR, Rosenstock JB. Inadequate Sleep and Exercise Associated with Burnout and Depression Among Medical Students Acad Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;41(2):174-179. doi: 10.1007(s40596-016-0526-y. Epub 2016 Mar 14 PMID: 26976402

Puccio F, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Ong D, Krug I A systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship between eating pathology and depression. Int J Eat Disord. 2016 May;49(5):439-54. doi: 10.1002(eat.22506. Epub 2016 Feb 3. PMID: 26841006

Vijayalakshmi P, Thimmaiah R, Gandhi S, BadaMath S. Eating Attitudes, Weight Control Behaviors, Body Image Satisfaction and Depression Level Among Indian Medical and Nursing Undergraduate Students. Community Ment Health J. 2018 Nov;54(8):1266-1273. doi: 10.1007(s10597-018-0333-x. Epub 2018 Aug 29. PMID: 30159637

Tajik E, Latiffah AL, Awang H, Siti Nur'Asyura A, Chin YS, Azrin Shah AB, Patricia Koh CH, Mohd Izudin Hariz CG. Unhealthy diet practice and symptoms of stress and depression among adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Mar-Apr;10(2):114-23. doi: 10.1016(j.orcp.2015.06.001. Epub 2015 Jul 21. PMID: 26204813

James BO, Thomas IF, Omoaregba JO, Okogbenin EO, Okonoda KM, Ibrahim AW, Salihu AS, Oshodi YO, Orovwigho A, Odinka PC, Eze GO, Onyebueke GC, Aweh BE. Psychosocial correlates of perceived stress among undergraduate medical students in Nigeria. Int J Med Educ. 2017 Oct 26;8:382-388. doi: 10.5116(ijme.59c6.3075. PMID: 29083991

Vasegh S, Mohammadi MR. Religiosity, anxiety, and depression among a sample of Iranian medical students. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2007;37(2):213-27. doi: 10.2190(J3V5-L316-0U13-7000. PMID: 17953238

Francis B, Gill JS, Yit Han N, Petrus CF, Azhar FL, Ahmad Sabki Z, Said MA, Ong Hui K, Chong Guan N, Sulaiman AH. Religious Coping, Religiosity, Depression and Anxiety among Medical Students in a Multi-Religious Setting. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 17;16(2):259. doi: 10.3390(ijerph16020259. PMID: 30658450

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism