Contemporary methods of prevention and early detection of cervical cancer - a review of the literature

Ewelina Zygmunt, Dariusz Chojeta, Aleksandra Zimna, Hubert Wróblewski, Barbara Maziarz, Halina Piecewicz-Szczęsna



Cervical carcinoma remains a significant health problem, despite the progressive fall in the mortality rate during the past 60 years. However, cervical carcinoma is still the most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cancer cause of death in many countries.  The primary strategy to reduce the incidence and death rate from cervical carcinoma is screening by cervical cytology. The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of prophylactic vaccines to prevent HPV infection and HPV assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus. This study is a review of currently available methods of prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.


cervical carcinoma; Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination; cytology; prevention; early detection.

Full Text:



GLOBOCAN 2008; International Agency for Research on Cancer;

Parkin DM, Bray F, FerlayJ i wsp. GLOBOCAN 2002 Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence wordwide. IARC Cancer Base; Lyon 2004,powszechne-szczepienia-przeciw-hpv-raczej-po-2022-roku

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Expands Recommendations on HPV Vaccine, Leaves Some Decisions Up to Patients and Their Providers. June 28, 2019 Rene F. Najera

Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2017; 92 (19): 241–268

Andrews N., Stowe J. Miller E.: No increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after human papilloma virus vaccine: A self-controlled case-series study in England. Vaccine, 2017; 35 (13): 1729–1732

Brotherton J.M.L., Bloem P.N.: Population-based HPV vaccination programmes are safe and effective: 2017 update and the impetus for achieving better global coverage. Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol., 2018; 47: 42–58

Rekomendacje Zespołu Ekspertów Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego dotyczące szczepienia przeciwko zakażeniom HPV. Ginekol Pol 2009, 80: 139-146.

Charakterystyka produktu leczniczego – szczepionki: Silgard (MSD 2006) oraz Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline 2007).

Arbyn M. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. 20082nd ed, Luxembourg, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities

The implementation of an organised cervical screening programme in Poland: an analysis of the adherence to European guidelines. Nowakowski A, Cybulski M, Śliwczyński A, Chil A, Teter Z, Seroczyński P, Arbyn M, AnttilA BMC Cancer. 2015 Apr 14; 15():279.

Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne: Rekomendacje PTG dotyczące diagnostyki, profilaktyki i wczesnego wykrywania raka szyjki macicy. Gin Pol 2006; 77: 655–659.

Rajtar M. Badanie cytologiczne. Mag Piel Położ 2000; 9: 35-6

Prandi S, Beccati D, De Aloysio G, et al. Applicability of the Bethesda System 2001 to a public health setting. Cancer 2006; 108: 271-6.

Sikorski M. Zakażenia HPV – współczesne poglądy i praktyka. Termedia, Poznań 2008

Wytyczne postępowania klinicznego ACOG 2009 r. Medycyna Praktyczna – Ginekologia i położnictwo 2010;2: 11–12

Reksa D, Muszyńska A, Grotowska M, et al. Rak szyjki macicy – profilaktyka a świadomość społeczna. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2006; 8: 740-2.

Castle P, Wacholder S, Sherman M, [et al.]. Absolute risk of a subsequent abnormal papamong oncogenic human papillomavirus DNA-positive, cytologically negative women.Cancer.2002, 95, 2145-2151.

Lynge E, Antilla A, Arbyn M et al. Wath’s next? Perspectives and future of cervical screening in Europe in the era of molecular testing and vaccination.European Journal of Cancer 2009; 45: 2714–2721.

Postępowanie w przypadku nieprawidłowego wyniku przesiewowego badania cytologicznego. Rekomendacje Centralnego Ośrodka Koordynującego Populacyjny Program Profilaktyki i Wczesnego Wykrywania Raka Szyjki Macicy, Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Patologów i Polskiego Towarzystwa Kolposkopii i Patofizjologii Szyjki Macicy. Warszawa 20

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism