Plant based diet and cardio-metabolic disease

Justyna Dąbrowska, Magdalena Wójcik, Joanna Borowik, Kinga Kuśmierczuk, Halina Pieciewicz-Szczęsna



Introduction: Modern lifestyle, especially diet have a great impact on health. The number of people suffering from conditions related to lifestyle is growing rapidly. Illnesses related to lifestyle, specifically to diet are large health and economic burdens, which makes them the leading priorities of our time. Coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are some of cardio-metabolic diseases related to diet.  Plant-based diets are dietary patterns in which  a high intake of plant food is emphasized  and the intake of animal products is limited. Plant based diet was associated with decreased risk of cardio-metabolic disease.

The aim of the study: The purpose of this systemic review was to collect and analyse current data of plant based diet and its effect on health.

Material and method: Standard criteria were used to review the literature data. The search of articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar database was carried out using the following keywords: plant based diet, vegetarian diet, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia.

Description of the state of knowledge: Red meat and, especially processed meat, is source of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium, which makes it a risk factors for metabolic disorders.  Healthy plant based diet can positively affect cardiovascular health in many ways. High fiber content makes those diets  low in energy density, flavonoids that are present in fruits and vegetables and also high content of antioxidants. Plant based diet was also shown to be helpful in reducing weight.

Summary: Many risk factors of cardio-metabolic disease are related to our lifestyle and dietary choices . Changes towards plant based diet can be beneficial for our health in many ways. Healthy plant based diet should be considered as a nonpharmaceutical approach to prevent and treat cardio-metabolic diseases.


plant based diet; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes

Full Text:



Kim H, Caulfield LE, Rebholz CM. Healthy Plant-Based Diets Are Associated with Lower Risk of All-Cause Mortality in US Adults. J Nutr. 2018 148(4) 624–631. doi:10.1093/jn/nxy019

Kahleova H, Levin S, Barnard N. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets. Nutrients. 2017 9(8) 848. doi:10.3390/nu9080848

Mozaffarian D. Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity: A Comprehensive Review. Circulation. 2016 133(2) 187–225. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018585

Huang H, Yan Z, Chen Y, Liu F. A social contagious model of the obesity epidemic. Sci Rep. 2016 6 37961. doi:10.1038/srep37961

Brahe LK, Astrup A, Larsen LH. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?. AdvNutr. 2016 7(1) 90–101. doi:10.3945/an.115.010587

Cătoi AF, Pârvu A, Mureşan A, Busetto L. Metabolic Mechanisms in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery. ObesFacts. 2015 8(6) 350–363. doi:10.1159/000441259

Martin KA, Mani MV, Mani A. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 763(Pt A) 64–74. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.093

Fruh SM. Obesity: Risk factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long-term weight management. J Am AssocNursePract. 2017 29(S1) S3–S14. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12510

Turner-McGrievy G, Mandes T, Crimarco A. A plant-based diet for overweight and obesity prevention and treatment. J GeriatrCardiol. 2017 14(5) 369–374. doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.002

Ma Y, Pagoto SL, Griffith JA, et al. A dietary quality comparison of popular weight-loss plans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 107(10) 1786–1791. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.013

Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 31(1) 109–116. doi:10.1007/s11606-015-


Kahleova H, Fleeman R, Hlozkova A, Holubkov R, Barnard ND. A plant-based diet in overweight individuals in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: metabolic benefits of plant protein. NutrDiabetes. 2018 8(1) 58. doi:10.1038/s41387-018-0067-4

Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, et al. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. NutrMetabCardiovascDis. 2013 23(4) 292–299. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2011.07.004

Rosell M, Appleby P, Spencer E, Kay T. Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obes (Lond)2006 30 1389–1396. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803305

Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1230–1238. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473

Najjar RS, Moore CE, Montgomery BD. A defined, plant-based diet utilized in an outpatient cardiovascular clinic effectively treats hypercholesterolemia and hypertension and reduces medications. ClinCardiol. 2018 41(3) 307–313. doi:10.1002/clc.22863

Soliman GA. Dietary Fiber, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2019 11(5) 1155. doi:10.3390/nu11051155

Slavin J. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients. 2013 5(4) 1417–1435. doi:10.3390/nu5041417

Threapleton DE, Greenwood DC, Evans CE, Cleghorn CL, Nykjaer C, et al. Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 347 f6879. doi:10.1136/bmj.f6879

Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, KhaliliMoghadam S, ZadehVakili A, Azizi F. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients. 2016 8(11) 686. doi:10.3390/nu8110686

Han S, Zhang W, Zhang R, Jiao J, Fu C, et al. Cereal fiber improves blood cholesterol profiles and modulates intestinal cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Food Nutr Res. 2019 63 10.29219/fnr.v63.1591. doi:10.29219/fnr.v63.1591

Holscher HD. Dietary fiber and prebiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Gut Microbes. 2017 8(2) 172–184. doi:10.1080/19490976.2017.1290756

Poti JM, Braga B, Qin B. Ultra-processed Food Intake and Obesity: What Really Matters for Health-Processing or Nutrient Content?. CurrObes Rep. 2017 6(4) 420–431. doi:10.1007/s13679-017-0285-4

Fiolet T, Srour B, Sellem L, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ. 2018 360 k322. doi:10.1136/bmj.k322

Marti A. Ultra-Processed Foods Are Not "Real Food" but Really Affect Your Health. Nutrients. 2019 11(8) 1902. doi:10.3390/nu11081902

Buscemi J, Pugach O, Springfield S, Jang J, Tussing-Humphreys L, et al. Associations between fiber intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) among African-American women participating in a randomized weight loss and maintenance trial. EatBehav. 2018 29 48–53. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2018.02.005

Srour B, Fezeu LK, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Méjean C, et al. Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). BMJ. 2019 365 l1451. doi:10.1136/bmj.l1451

Medeiros GCBS, Azevedo KPM, Mesquita GXB, Lima SCVC, Silva DFO, et al. Red meat consumption, risk of incidence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality, and the dose-response effect: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 98(38) e17271. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000017271

Alshahrani SM, Fraser GE, Sabaté J, Knutsen R, Shavlik D, et al. Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population. Nutrients. 2019 11(3) 622. doi:10.3390/nu11030622

De Pergola G, D'Alessandro A. Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Blood Pressure. Nutrients. 2018 10(11) 1700. doi:10.3390/nu10111700

Nguyen H, Odelola OA, Rangaswami J, Amanullah A. A review of nutritional factors in hypertension management. Int J Hypertens. 2013 2013 698940. doi:10.1155/2013/698940

Alexander S, Ostfeld RJ, Allen K, Williams KA. A plant-based diet and hypertension. J GeriatrCardiol. 2017 14(5) 327–330. doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.014

Schwingshackl L, Chaimani A, Hoffmann G, Schwedhelm C, Boeing H. Impact of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017 7(4) e014736. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014736

Hodgson JM. Effects of tea and tea flavonoids on endothelial function and blood pressure: a brief review. ClinExpPharmacol Physiol. 2006 33 838–841. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04450.x

Baradaran A, Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Oxidative stress and hypertension: Possibility of hypertension therapy with antioxidants. J Res MedSci. 2014 19(4) 358–367.

Upadhyay S, Dixit M. Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling. OxidMed Cell Longev. 2015 2015 504253. doi:10.1155/2015/504253

Park SK, Tucker KL, O'Neill MS, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, et al. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Am J ClinNutr. 2009 89(3) 778–786. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26849

Grant JD. Time for change: Benefits of a plant-based diet. Can Fam Physician. 2017 63(10) 744–746.

Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? [published correction appears in Am J ClinNutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):248]. Am J ClinNutr. 2009 89(5) 1607S–1612S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K

Lynch H, Johnston C, Wharton C. Plant-Based Diets: Considerations for Environmental Impact, Protein Quality, and Exercise Performance. Nutrients. 2018 10(12) 1841. doi:10.3390/nu10121841

Gylling H, Simonen P. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism. Nutrients. 2015 7(9) 7965–


Lambert C, Cubedo J, Padró T, Sánchez-Hernández J, Antonijoan RM, et al. Phytosterols and Omega 3 Supplementation Exert Novel Regulatory Effects on Metabolic and Inflammatory Pathways: A Proteomic Study. Nutrients. 2017 9(6) 599. doi:10.3390/nu9060599

Ras RT, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. 2014 112(2) 214–219. doi:10.1017/S0007114514000750

Cabral CE, Klein MRST. Phytosterols in the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017 109(5) 475–482. doi:10.5935/abc.20170158

Trautwein EA, Koppenol WP, de Jong A, Hiemstra, H., Vermeer, M. A., et al. Plant sterols lower LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in dyslipidemic individuals with or at risk of developing type 2 diabetes; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. NutrDiabetes. 2018 8(1) 30. doi:10.1038/s41387-018-0039-8

Wang F, Zheng J, Yang B, Jiang J, Fu Y, Li D. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am HeartAssoc. 2015 4(10) e002408. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002408

Tian S, Xu Q, Jiang R, Han T, Sun C, Na L. Dietary Protein Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2017 9(9) 982. doi:10.3390/nu9090982

Cooper AJ, Forouhi NG, Ye Z, Buijsse B, Arriola L, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis. Eur J ClinNutr. 2012 66(10) 1082–1092. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.85

Muraki I, Imamura F, Manson JE, Hu FB, Willett WC, et al. Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies [published correction appears in BMJ. 2013;347:f6935]. BMJ. 2013 347 f5001. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5001

Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, Knüppel S, Iqbal K, et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-

analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 32(5) 363–375. doi:10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y

Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H, Oliyarnik O, Kazdova L, et al. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011 28(5) 549–559. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03209.x

Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN, Rimm EB, Spiegelman

D, Chiuve SE, et al. Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2016 13(6) e1002039. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039

Dreher ML. Whole Fruits and Fruit Fiber Emerging Health Effects. Nutrients. 2018 10(12) 1833. Published 2018 Nov 28. doi:10.3390/nu10121833

McMacken M, Shah S. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. J GeriatrCardiol. 2017 14(5) 342–354. doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.009

Barnard ND, Gloede L, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, et al. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 109(2) 263–272. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.049

Yokoyama Y, Levin SM, Barnard ND. Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. NutrRev. 2017 75(9) 683–698. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nux030

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48


Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism