Metabolic disorders in kidney stone disease in children

Monika Kusz, Adam Alzubedi, Paweł Polski, Paulina Pawluczuk, Agnieszka Maślak



Urolithiasis is not a rare disorder in children. Its etiology, incidence and localization vary by geographic region. It is an increasing problem, especially in developing countries. Metabolic abnormalities have been claimed to play a significant role in the kidney stone disease. Most of the studies confirmed that hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia are the most commonly identified metabolic disorder in children with urolithiasis. It is important to evaluate them to modify and prevent the stone recurrence.


nephrolithiasis; metabolic; hipercalciuria

Full Text:



Milliner DS, Murphy ME. Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68(3):241-248. doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(12)60043-3

Perrone HC, Rinaldi D, Santos MV, et al. Pediatric Nephrology Urolithiasis in childhood : metabolic evaluation. 1992:14-16.

Amato M, Lusini ML, Nelli F. Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis today. Urol Int. 2004;72(SUPPL. 1):1-5. doi:10.1159/000076582

Choi BH, Duckett JW. Urolithiasis in Childhood: Current Management. 1987;22(2):158-164.

Troup CW, Lawnicki CC, Bourne RB, Hodgson NB. Renal calculus in children. J Urol. 1972;107(2):306-307. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)61011-5

Wilkinson H. Clinical investigation and management of patients with renal stones. Ann Clin Biochem. 2001;38(3):180-187. doi:10.1258/0004563011900623

Smith CK. Urinary calculi in children. J Am Med Assoc. 1928;91(19):1431-1435. doi:10.1001/jama.1928.02700190015005

Noe HN, Stapleton FB, Jerkins GR, Roy S. Clinical experience with urolithiasis. J Urol. 1983;129(6):1166-1168. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)52622-1

Pietrow PK, Pope JC IV, Adams MC, et al. Clinical outcome of pediatric stone10. Hogg RJ, Reisch JS, Green K, et al. Idiopathic hypercalciuria: Association with isolated hematuria and risk for urolithiasis in children. Kidney Int. 1990;37(2):807-811. doi:10.1038/ki.1990.49

Vandervoort K, Wiesen J, Frank R, et al. Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients : A Single Center Study of Incidence , Clinical Presentation and Outcome. 2007;177(June):2300-2305. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.02.002

Bihl G, Meyers A. Recurrent renal stone disease - Advances in pathogenesis and clinical management. Lancet. 2001;358(9282):651-656. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05782-8

Sakhaee K. Recent advances in the pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int Eval calcium oxalate monohydrate Cryst Kinet Vitr. 2009;75(6):585-595. doi:10.1038/ki.2008.626

Nicar MJ, Hill K, Pak CYC. Inhibition by citrate of spontaneous precipitation of calcium oxalate in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 1987;2(3):215-220. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650020308

Copelovitch L. Urolithiasis in Children. Medical Approach. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2012;59(4):881-896. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.05.009

Burke C, Stickler B. Nephrolithiasis. 2020;(1).

Shah J, Whitfield HN. Urolithiasis through the ages. BJU Int. 2002;89(8):801-810. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02769.x

Ratkalkar VN, Kleinman JG. Mechanisms of stone formation. Clin Rev Bone Miner Metab. 2011;9(3-4):187-197. doi:10.1007/s12018-011-9104-8

Bilge I, Yilmaz A, Kayiran SM, et al. Clinical importance of renal calyceal microlithiasis in children. Pediatr Int. 2013;55(6):731-736. doi:10.1111/ped.12186

Güven AG, Koyun M. Urolithiasis in the first year of life. 2010:129-134. doi:10.1007/s00467-009-1296-5

Stapleton FB, McKay CP, Noe NH. Urolithiasis in children: the role of hypercalciuria. Pediatr Ann 1987;16:980–92

Assimos D. Re: Nephrolithiasis-Associated Bone Disease: Pathogenesis and Treatment Options. J Urol. 2011;185(5):1749-1749. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(11)60193-6

Mir C, Rodriguez A, Rodrigo D, et al. Analysis of urine composition from split 24-h samples: use of 12-h overnight samples to evaluate risk factors for calcium stones in healthy and stone forming children. J Pediatr Urol. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.02.011

Benigno V, Canonica CS, Bettinelli A, Von Vigier RO, Truttmann AC, Bianchetti MG. Hypomagnesaemia-hypercalciuria-nephrocalcinosis: A report of nine cases and a review. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15(5):605-610. doi:10.1093/ndt/15.5.605

Jaya Kausalya P, Amasheh S, Günzel D, et al. Disease-associated mutations affect intracellular traffic and paracellular Mg2+ transport function of Claudin-16. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(4):878-891. doi:10.1172/JCI26323

Karet FE. Inherited distal renal tubular acidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13(8):2178-2184. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000023433.08833.88

Dhir G, Li D, Hakonarson H, Levine MA. Late-onset hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) due to mutation of SLC34A3/NPT2c. Bone. 2017;97:15-19. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2016.12.001

Tang AR, Hinz LE, Khan A, Kline GA. Phosphate matters when investigating hypercalcemia: A mutation in SLC34A3 causing HHRH. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Reports. 2019;2019(1). doi:10.1530/EDM-19-0058

Cunha T da S, Heilberg IP. Bartter syndrome: Causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2018;11:291-301. doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S155397

Hebert SC. Bartter syndrome. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2003;12(5):527-532. doi:10.1097/00041552-200309000-00008

Kok DJ, Papapoulos SE, Blomen LJMJ, Bijvoet OLM. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization kinetics in vitro. Kidney Int. 1988;34(3):346-350. doi:10.1038/ki.1988.187

Tefekli A, Esen T, Ziylan O, Erol B, Armagan A, Ander H. Metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric and Adult Calcium Oxalate Urinary Stone Formers : Is There Any Difference ? 2003:273-277. doi:10.1159/000070134

Alon US, Zimmerman H, Alon M. Evaluation and treatment of pediatric idiopathic urolithiasis - Revisited. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(5):516-520. doi:10.1007/s00467-004-1422-3

Lieske JC, Farell G, Deganello S. The effect of ions at the surface of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals on cell-crystal interactions. Urol Res. 2004;32(2):117-123. doi:10.1007/s00240-003-0391-5

Spivacow FR, Negri AL, Valle EE, Calviño I, Fradinger E, Zanchetta JR. Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease. 2008:1129-1133. doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0769-2

Pak CYC, Sakhaee K, Peterson RD, Poindexter JR, Frawley WH. Biochemical profile of idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int. 2001;60(2):757-761. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.060002757.x

Menon M. Uric acid excretion in children with urolithiasis: Editorial comment. J Urol. 1990;144(2 I):406.

Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Assimos DG. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion. Kidney Int Eval calcium oxalate monohydrate Cryst Kinet Vitr. 2001;59(1):270-276. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00488.x

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48


Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism