The incidence of infection, diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori in developing countries on the example of Kenya

Dominik Machaj, Sandra Jastrzębska, Katarzyna Cyboran, Alicja Płaczek, Wiktoria Flaumenhaft



Introduction: One of the most common causes of bacterial infections in the world is Helicobacter pylori. It has developed mechanisms that allow it to survive in the acidic pH of the stomach. The bacterium contributes to the incidence of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Infected is about 50% of the world population, while in Africa the proportion is as high as 80%. Despite this there are still number of African guidelines for infection prevention and eradication of the bacterium. Most infections concerns children, adolescents and the elderly. Data on the diagnosis and treatment of patients in Kenya are inconsistent. [1] Doctors are based on international recommendations. No general insurance and a low level of affluence prevent diagnosis of patients at the level of developed countries. Access to endoscopy, and cultures have only wealthy people in big cities. Purpose: Examine the percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection among the people of Kenya, the analysis of the causes of its high value, comparing the diagnosis and treatment with European standards. Material and methods Analysis of causes of hospitalization in 227 hospital patients in Kenya. The majority of them has made winning the test of H. pylori antigen in stool. Analysis of the results of research carried out in 2010Subdepartment Medical Microbiology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in Nairobi, Kenya, where the diagnostic methods was rapid urease test and histological tests. Conclusions The proportion of patients infected with H. pylori in Chuka is 51.9%. Cause of inflammation of the stomach in almost 1/3 of hospitalized patients may be awareness of hygiene and drinking water unsuitable for consumption. Standards of treatment of patients infected with H. pylori do not differ from European guidelines.


Helicobacter pylori; Treatment; Diagnosis; Kenya; gastritis

Full Text:



Smith, S., Fowora, M., & Pellicano, R. Infections with Helicobacter pylori and challenges encountered in Africa. World journal of gastroenterology, 2019. 25(25), 3183.

Łaszewicz W. report on the implementation of the project deliberately ordered the Ministry of Health and Scientific Research Committee "Helicobacter pylori infection in Poland - study Epidemiological. " Trans Humana Publishing House, 2004 Bialystok.

Warren JR, Marshall BJ. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active Chronic gastritis. Lancet 1983; 1: 1273-3.

Kenneth EL McColl, MD. Helicobacter pylori Infection N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1597-604.

Godlewska R, Jagusztyn-Krynica EK. Analysis of virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori in the light of genomics. Post Microbiol 2003; 42: 115-137.

Olivera-Severo D, Wassermann GE, Carlini CR. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: is there a connection is Caused by diseases ureas-producing bacteria? Braz J Med Biol Res and 2006; 39 (7): 851-861.

Etyang A O, & Gerard Scott J A. Medical causes of admissions to hospital among adults in Africa: a systematic review. Global health action, 2013. 6(1), 19090.

Kimang’a, A. N., Revathi, G., Kariuki, S., Sayed, S., & Devani, S. Helicobacter pylori: prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among Kenyans. South African Medical Journal, 2010. 100(1).

Chey WD, Wong BCY, Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. The American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 1808-1825.

Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O'Morain C., et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III consensus report. Gut 2007; 56: 772-81.

Hooi JKY, Lai WY, Ng WK, Suen MMY, Underwood FE, Tanyingoh D, Malfertheiner P, Graham DY, Wong VWS, Wu JCY, Chan FKL, Sung JJY, Kaplan GG, Ng SC. Global Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017; 153: 420-429.

Hanafi NF, Mikhael IL, Younan DN. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in Egyptians with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic purpura and in the Egyptian General Population: A Comparative Study. Int J Curr Sci Appl Microbiol. 2017; 6: 2482-2492.

Dube C Tanih NF Ndip RN. Helicobacter pylori in water sources: A global environmental health concern. Rev Environ Health. 2009; 24: 1-14. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Dube C, Tanih NF, Clarke AM Mkwetshana N, Green E, Ndip RN. Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission in Africa: Household hygiene and water sources are plausible factor exacerbating spread- Afr J Biotechnol. 2009; 8: 6028-6035. [Google Scholar].

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48


Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism