THE ARCTIC: NUMEROUS INTERESTS AND MULTIPLE PLAYERS
Keywordsthe Arctic, Arctic Council, China, Greenland, Arctic interests
The article attempts to present what seems to be of critical importance to the planet in terms of the influence on the life of all of us, namely the current changes occurring in the Arctic, as well as tries to show how complex the issue is. The main theme is the climate, presented also in a historical perspective. The work will also present the interesting connection between the Arctic and the two Nobel Peace Prize winners: one of the year 2007, namely Albert Arnold "Al" Gore, Jr., and the other of the year 2010 to Liu Xiaobo of China, which brought us international tensions and affected Arctic deliberations as well. In addition, the work endeavors to describe briefly the role of the Arctic Council in responding to the problem and presents the countries vying for the participation in it, including their possible reasons for doing so. Through the example of China, a fairly new country with the permanent observer status in the Arctic Council, the author attempts to present the complexity of international relations and diversified interests of separate countries and organizations, as well as evaluates some potential developments in the Arctic geopolitical sphere.
Act on Greenland Self-Government. (2009). Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Act%20on%20Greenland.pdf.
Arctic Council-a. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from http://www.arctic-council.
Arctic Council-b. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2019, from https://arctic-council.org/images/PDF_attachments/Maps/admin_areas.pdf.
Arctic Council-c. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from https://arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us.
Arctic Council-d. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/partners-links.
Arctic Council-e. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from https://arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/arctic-council/observers.
Arctic Council-f. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/.
Arctic Council-g. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/bitstream/handle/11374/1905/EDOCS-4244-v1-Arctic-Council-diagram-official-spring-2017.PDF?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
The Arctic Institute Center for Circumpolar Security Studies. (2012). Retrieved January 12,2013, from http://www.thearcticinstitute.org.
Arctic Portal. (2013, January 24). Norway welcomes China to Arctic Council. Retrieved March 15, 2014, from http://arcticportal.org.
Bennet, M. (2012, February 2). Snubbed by Norway, China looks elsewhere for support in Arctic (Foreign Policy Blogs, Canada based). Eye on the Arctic. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from http://eyeonthearctic.rcinet.ca.
Bluth, N. (2017, May 3). Media Perceptions of the Arctic Council. World Policy. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from https://worldpolicy.org/2017/05/03/media-perceptions-of-the-arctic-council/.
Brady, A. (2017). China as a Polar Great Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781316832004.002.
Breum, M. (2017, October 18). Kina vil bygge kontroversiel forskningsstation i Grønland. Retrieved April 12, 2018, from http://sermitsiaq.ag/satellitstation-kan-del-kinesiskgps-system.
Casey, K. (2013). The Arctic This Week: 19 January 2013 – 25 January 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2014, from http://www.thearcticinstitute.org/.
CBC News. (2009). Canada against EU entry to Arctic Council because of seal trade ban. Retrieved Fberuary 14, 2018, from www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/canada-against-eu-entry-to-arctic-council-because-of-seal-trade-ban-1.806188.
Chinese Embassy. (2018, January 15). Ambassador Deng Ying Meets with Minister for Independence, Foreign Affairs and Agriculture of Greenland Self-Government. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://dk.china-embassy.org/eng/zgxw/t1525818.htm.
Coffey, L. (2013, January 24). Hagel, Kerry, and Brennan Senate Confirmation Hearings: U.S. Policy on Arctic Security.The Heritage Foundation Leadership for America. Issue Brief No. 3840.
The Economist. (2013). Outsiders in the Arctic. The roar of ice cracking. Will Asian countries consolidate or disrupt Arctic stability? Retrieved February 3, 2013, from www.economist.com.
English.news.cn. (2013). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://news.xinhuanet.com.
European Commission. (2008). The European Union and the Arctic Region. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from eeas.europa.eu/arctic_region/docs/com_08_763_en.pdf.
IMO. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://www.imo.org.
Jacobsen, M. (2016, May 4). Denmark’s strategic interests in the Arctic: It’s the Greenlandic connection, stupid! The Arctic Institute, Center for Circumpolar Security Studies. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from https://www.thearcticinstitute.org/denmark-interests-arctic-greenland-connection/.
Koivurova, T. (2016). Arctic Deeply. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://www.newsdeeply.com/arctic/community/2016/02/29/the-eu-in-the-arctic-correcting-misconceptions.
Marketspace. (n.d.). Retrived January 25, 2013, from http://marketspace.thinktosustain.com.
McFarland, K. & Lide, V. (2018, July 30). The Arctic is melting. Here’s why cooperation and diplomacy get so complicated. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2019, from https://www.arctic.gov/arctic_update/2018/2018jul30.html.
The Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program. (2012). Canada as an Arctic Power: Preparing for the Canadian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council (2013–2015). Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.arctic-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Canada-as-an-Arctic-Power.pdf.
Opencanada. (2011). Interests and Roles of Non-Arctic States in the Arctic: Background Brief. Retrieved August 14, 2016, from http://www.opencanada.org.
Petersen, S. (2016, May 19). Tættere forbindelser indenfor arktisk forskning med Kina, Sermitsiaq. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://sermitsiaq.ag/taettere-forbindelser-indenfor-arktisk-forskning-kina.
Raspotnik, A., & Humpert, M. (2013). Banyan: Snow Dragons. As the Arctic melts, Asia shudders at the risks but slavers at the opportunities. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from https://www.economist.com/asia/2012/09/01/snow-dragons.
Rosing, M. (2014). To the Benefit of Greenland. University of Copenhagen & Ilisimatusarfik (University of Greenland). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://greenlandperspective.ku.dk/this_is_greenland_perspective/background/report-papers/To_the_benefit_of_Greenland.pdf.
Roston, E. (2017, December 29). How a Melting Arctic Changes Everything, Part III: The Economic Arctic. Retrieved Janury 15, 2018, from https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2017-arctic/the-economic-arctic/.
Sevunts, L. (2013, January 25). Canada’s delicate balancing act at Arctic Council: ‘Yes’ to China, ‘No’ to EU (Foreign Policy Blogs, Canada based). Eye on the Arctic. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://eyeonthearctic.rcinet.ca.
SIPRI. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.sipri.org/research/security/arctic/arcticevents/the-arctic-council-in-transition-nordic-to-north-american-leadership.
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. (2018). China’s Arctic Policy. Retrieved July 1, 2019, from https://www.chinadailyasia.com/articles/188/159/234/1516941033919.html.
Stern, P. (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
Sørensen, C. (2017). Promises and risks of Chinese investments in Greenland seen from Nuuk, Copenhagen and Beijing. In K.Søby and J.Rahbek-Clemmensen (Eds.), Greenland and International Security in a Changing Arctic. Oxford: Routledge.
Sørensen, C. (2018, February). China as an Arctic Great Power: Potential Implications for Greenland and the Danish Realm. Danish Defence Policy Brief.
Voice of America. (2012, June 5). Norway Questions China’s Temperament for Seat on Arctic Council. Retrieved Fabruary 1, 2013, from http://blogs.voanews.com.
Østhagen, A. (2013). In or Out? The Symbolism of the EU’s Arctic Council Bid. The Arctic Institute.
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 74
Number of citations: 0