Torun International Studies https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM <p>Torun International Studies (TIS) is an semi-annual, open access scholary journal published by Scientia et Progressus Fundationa in co-operation with <strong>Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland), Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania) and Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani University (Georgia)</strong>. TIS acts as a forum for the exchange of ideas and scientific discussions on international issues. TIS primarily focuses on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, whilst also analyzing other regions of the world. Original, previously unpublished works in the field of broadly understood international relations are accepted for publication.</p> <p>The thematic scope of the journal covers issues in the field of:</p> <ul> <li>international security (e.g. external threats to state security, the international security system, international armed conflicts, military cooperation between states, global cyber threats and others),</li> <li>international economic and financial relations (e.g. international flows of production factors, international trade, economic integration, activities of global corporations and others),</li> <li>international law (international agreements, foreign service, human rights, international organizations, international disputes and others),</li> <li>international political relations (foreign policy and its conditions, international institutions, diplomacy, states and nations, international political order and others)</li> <li>as well as geopolitical issues.</li> </ul> <p><span lang="en"> </span></p> <p><span lang="en">eISSN: <strong>2391-7601</strong></span><br /><span lang="en">DOI: <strong>10.12775/TIS</strong></span></p> <p><span lang="en"><strong>Indexed in: Google Scholar, IndexCopernicus <span lang="en"><strong>(100 points)</strong></span>, CEJSH, BazHum, SHERPA/RoMEO, ERIH PLUS, DOAJ, BAZEKON, CEEOL, <span lang="en"><strong>Electronic Journals Library, CiteFactor, MIAR (4), Open Academic Journals Index</strong></span> </strong></span></p> <p><span lang="en"><strong><strong style="text-align: justify;">Our journal was included in the list of scientific journals of the Ministry of </strong></strong></span><span lang="en"><strong><strong style="text-align: justify;">Education and </strong></strong></span><span lang="en"><strong><strong style="text-align: justify;">Science of December 1, 2021 with 100 points.</strong></strong></span></p> Nicolaus Copernicus University en-US Torun International Studies 2391-4920 EFFECTIVITY OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/36658 <p>Last century was significant for the public international law, which has developed rapidly, bringing some improvements regarding protecting human right despite the fact, it faces huge challenges regarding its effectivity. Through descriptive, normative and critical methods of research the article attempts to show, that there is a need for paradigm change in order to make public international law more effective. But what should be a new paradigm? What can increase the effectivity of the public international law? To answer these questions, the detailed inspection of the term of effectivity, as well as creation and the enforcement processes of the public international law norms is needed. Research shows common consent of states, legitimate constitutive act, authority as well as appropriate enforcement are pillars, based on which the public international law can uphold its effect. However, it will take some time.</p> Sopio Kiladze Copyright (c) 2022 Sopio Kiladze https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 5 23 10.12775/TIS.2022.001 THE CHALLENGES TO DEVELOPING SMART AGRICULTURAL VILLAGE IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0. https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/34420 <p>Nowadays, rural depopulation is one of the biggest problems in developed and developing countries, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This pandemic impacts various sectors, especially the economic sector. However, the development of the 4.0 Industrial Revolution forced all sectors, including agriculture, to adapt and take advantage of internet-based digital technology by developing smart agriculture. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the development of smart agriculture in rural areas. This study uses a systematic literature review with a TAA approach with secondary data collected from Scopus databases. The downloaded documents will be further analyzed using VOSviewer software to find the clustering. After the coding process by first-order categories, second layer theme, and aggregate dimension, this research found several theoretical concepts about the “Smart Village”. The definition of the ‘smart village’ concept is a combination of smart agriculture and industry 4.0 technology utilized by rural MSMEs to use the information and communication technology integrated into public services and economic activities. There are still many obstacles encountered in the application of ‘smart villages,’ such as the lack of youth participation and the low quality of human resources in the agricultural sector, limited internet network coverage, and the lack of optimal capital support. This research will contribute to the systematic literature review method by purposing filtering criteria of TAA to shade the light of the lack of data accuracy in several leading databases of scholarly impacts. This research also gives a clear direction for further research regarding industry 4.0 and Indonesia's smart agriculture concept application.</p> Johan Reineer Tumiwa Octavia Tuegeh Beata Bittner Adrian Nagy Copyright (c) 2022 Torun International Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 25 45 10.12775/TIS.2022.002 THE NEW SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA’S OIL: IMPLICATION FOR LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/34490 <p>Purpose: The new scramble for Africa is marked by an influx of direct investment for the extraction and exploitation of the region’s natural resources, which has undoubtedly boosted the expansion of African commodities such as oil and minerals, as well as promoting rapid economic growth in several countries in the continent. Regrettably, Africa’s labour has been largely ignored, as most oil and mineral investments are capital-intensive and are likely to displace labour in local production, while also jeopardizing the continent’s job prospects. The study looked at the impact of FDI in the oil sector on labour employment in ten oil-rich African countries from 1995 to 2018 as part of its investigation into the new scramble and labour in Africa.</p> <p>Methodology/approach: The study used the Instrumental Variable (IV) regression in the context of the system Generalized Method of Moment (SGMM) estimator, based on dynamic panel modelling.</p> <p>Findings: The findings suggest that foreign investments in the oil sector have a positive, but not significant, impact on African labour employment. This suggests that during the review period, foreign investment in the oil sector did not result in a considerable increase in productive job opportunities in the oil-rich African countries. This study established that the new scramble for Africa in the shape of foreign investments in the oil sector did not result in job creation in the region.</p> <p>Originality/value: First, there is sparse literature on oil sector FDI-employment relations in Africa and this study extends literature by employing 10 oil-rich African nations. Second, unlike prior studies, this study applied advanced econometric techniques to account for the problems of unobserved heterogeneity specific to individual countries, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation and endogeneity issues which are common in panel data regression. Third, this study will assist policymakers in the region to develop policies that will maximize the gains from the oil sector in Africa.</p> Uju Regina Ezenekwe ANAYO NKAMNEBE Maria Chinecherem Uzonwanne GERALDINE EJIAKA NZERIBE Chekwube Vitus Madichie Copyright (c) 2022 Torun International Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 47 62 10.12775/TIS.2022.003 POLISH-AMERICAN ALLIANCE DURING THE PRESIDENCY OF DONALD TRUMP IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF OFFENSIVE BANDWAGONING https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/34648 <p>The aim of the paper is to analyze and evaluate the Polish-American alliance during the presidency of Donald Trump in the perspective of the concept of offensive bandwagoning. In Poland, the United States is invariably perceived as the main external guarantor of security. For this reason, Poland's security policy is clearly pro-American. The Polish authorities from the Law and Justice party and the US administration of President Donald Trump were brought together by many factors, including ideological closeness, disputes with Western European political elites, relativizing the principles of the rule of law and democracy, and a similar view of the geopolitics of Central and Eastern Europe. I argue that in recent years the Polish-American alliance was deepened, but at the same time the asymmetry in relations between the states increased. Even more than usual, symptoms of clientelism were noticeable in Poland's security policy towards the US, which was a consequence of the implementation of the offensive bandwagoning concept. I also argue that the tightening of Polish-American alliance was detrimental to the cohesion and solidarity in NATO and the EU, which was against the basic interests of Poland's security. During the research, the method of text source analysis was used. The research could support decision-makers in developing the basic principles of Poland's security policy towards the United States.</p> Łukasz Jureńczyk Copyright (c) 2022 Torun International Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 63 76 10.12775/TIS.2022.004 SYMBOLS MATTER: IMPERIAL DIPLOMACY IN POSTWAR JAPAN https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/33190 <p>This article analyzes the significance of imperial diplomacy in postwar Japan. While the emperor performed many formal duties, he played only a symbolic role in decision-making process and was usually separated from politics. Nevertheless, the symbolic importance of the emperor was periodically used by politicians to promote friendly relations with other countries. The main aim of the article is to examine to what extent Japanese decision-makers took advantage of the emperor in diplomacy through drafting his speeches, arranging his appointments with foreign statespersons, and planning his visits abroad to realize their own foreign policy goals. Relying on institutional and legal analysis as well as short case studies, the authors argue that while the emperor was used in foreign policy, the reverence towards the emperor made such initiatives particularly controversial. The article tries to fill the gap in research on imperial diplomacy, which has been dominated by biographical studies on individual emperors.</p> Karol Żakowski Sylwia Łagnowska Copyright (c) 2022 Torun International Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 77 91 10.12775/TIS.2022.005 PUBLIC AID AS AN EFFICIENT TOOL FOR DEVELOPING THE RAIL SECTOR IN EU MEMBER STATES https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/36585 <p>Rail transport is paramount for the functioning of a sustainable and efficient transport system. EU policy identifying significant role of rail translates into a strong financial support allocated to the transport sector both in the form of services funding and of infrastructure investments. In the study conducted, the impact of public support for rail transport was analyzed in reference to several indicators describing the condition of that sector. The analysis covered an assessment of the impact of public support granted based on PSO – Public Service Obligation, and of the support for infrastructure investments. The results reveal a great variability of the outcome across countries. Countries which provide stronger support for infrastructure investments are characterized, as a rule, by better performance. In the Authors’ opinion, strengthening the support for infrastructure investments at the expense of support granted as part of PSO should be the path for rail funding policy redefinition.</p> Marta Postula Stefan Jarecki Krzysztof Jaworski Copyright (c) 2022 Marta Postuła, Stefan Jarecki , Krzysztof Jaworski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 93 112 10.12775/TIS.2022.006 ON THE WAY TO QMS IMPLEMENTATION: THE MAIN MILESTONES AND ISSUES IN EMERGING ECONOMY https://apcz.umk.pl/TSM/article/view/37294 <p>The aim of the research is to analyze typical problems in the implementation of quality management systems (QMS) on the basis of private production enterprises which operate in emerging economy context and to develop a rational strategic plan for the design and implementation of such a system, taking into account the experience of successful organizations. The main benefits of implementing QMS are presented. In the article it is recommended to consider the formation of QMS as a project with the appropriate stages of activities. The following positions are envisaged at the initiation stage: formalization of the decision on QMS implementation, appointment of project participants, project team training, as well as development of mission, vision, quality policy and QMS process structure. At the implementation stage, it is proposed to develop and approve QMS documents, as well as to implement an internal audit program. At the stage of project closure, it is advisable to put into operation the developed system and pass a certification audit in order to obtain a certificate of compliance with the requirements of ISO 9001. The article presents the structure, content, sequence and estimated duration of all the stages of the project, as well as the division of responsibilities between the project team members. Emphasis is placed on the main issues which can arise at different stages of such a project. In the paper the following range of issues was identified: inconsistency of QMS processes structure with the existing organizational structure of the enterprise; incorrect definition of the performance indicators for processes at different hierarchy levels; erroneous decisions in the internal documentation system organizing. In its turn, in the article the causes for the above-mentioned issues were identified, namely: insufficient motivation of project participants, lack of time or other necessary resources, unwillingness to change the current management system of the company, inconsistency of real goals with the stated ones, etc. In the article it is proposed to divide the main causes of issues into three basic groups: by project participants (personal), bureaucratic (systemic) and leadership (administrative). The authors propose a number of measures to minimize the risks of issues in the QMS implementation, and determine the distribution of areas of responsibility for these measures organizing.</p> Viacheslav Lebedynets Olena Prokhorenko Pavlo Brin Mohamad Nehme Copyright (c) 2022 Viacheslav Lebedynets, Olena Prokhorenko, Pavlo Brin, Mohamad Nehme https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 1 15 113 131 10.12775/TIS.2022.007