Cechy rzemieślnicze w świetle ogolnokrajowego jednolitego prawa przemysłowego II Rzeczypospolitej
Polish Craft Guilds in the Light of the Unifi ed Industry Lawin the Second Polish Republic
The aim of the article is to present the most important data concerning craftsmen’s associations in the Second Polish Republic under the new unified industry law that was introduced in 1927. Additionally, it describes basic formal and legal rules conditioning the functioning of such voluntary associations. The article is source-based and it focuses on the analysis of national legal acts issued from 1927 to 1939. It is divided into nine sections. The first section discusses the context for the introduction of the unified industry law; what follows is the analysis of other legal acts pertinent to the subject matter as well as to the issues connected with the creation of a guild statute. The article further reflects on guild responsibilities and the rules for establishing guild districts, or the territorial units the associations would operate on. The problem of guild membership is discussed in detail, as usually it would be voluntary, but in certain cases it could become mandatory if such a provision were prevailed upon in a popular vote. Guild organisational structure is analysed, as well as the division of responsibilities and activities specific for the members’ assembly, assisting functionaries, the governing body, the arbitration court, apprentice department and the apprentices’ circle. The article mentions also such issues as guild finances; legal status of guilds; the problem of state supervision; voluntary and obligatory guild liquidation rules. It ends with a description of exceptional regulations made for the Silesian voivodship from 1933 to 1934.
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