Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO <p>„Klio. Czasopismo poświęcone dziejom Polski i powszechnym” to kwartalnik publikowany przez Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. Publikujemy artykuły poświęcone historii polskiej i powszechnej. </p><p>"Klio" to czasopismo naukowe, którego misją jest umożliwienie historykom wymiany myśli i prezentacji wyników najważniejszych badań. </p><p> </p><p>„Klio” znajduje się w ERIH PLUS, CEEOL, ICI Journal Master List.</p><p>Punkty MNiSW 2019: <strong>40</strong></p><p><strong>Punkty MEiN 2021: 70</strong></p><p>ISSN: <strong>1643-8191</strong><br />e-ISSN: <strong>2719-7476</strong></p><p>Redakcja “Klio” nie pobiera opłat za zgłoszenie tekstu, przygotowanie artykułu do druku czy jego publikację. Autorzy nie otrzymują honorarium za teksty publikowane w kwartalniku.</p><p>Współczynnik odrzuceń nadsyłanych artykułów naukowych:<strong> ok. 40%</strong></p><p>Kontakt mailowy:<strong> <a href="mailto:klio@umk.pl">klio@umk.pl</a></strong><strong> </strong></p><strong style="margin-top: 0px; color: #ffffff; font-family: Lato-Regular; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #0050aa; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"></strong><strong style="margin-bottom: 0px; color: #ffffff; font-family: Lato-Regular; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #0050aa; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"></strong> Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu pl-PL Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym 1643-8191 Lud – zapomniany komponent polskiej historii https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/35559 <p>Niniejszy tekst jest artykułem recenzyjnym dotyczącym książki Adama Leszczyńskiego poświęconej historii wyzysku chłopów, mieszczan i robotników w dziejach Polski. Moje uwagi odnoszą się głównie do epoki wczesnonowożytnej i pominiętej przez autora książki roli Kościoła rzymskokatolickiego w tej historii.</p> Jacek Wijaczka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 58 2 167 183 10.12775/KLIO.2021.018 Orfeusz, śpiewak mityczny – ani tracki ani pieryjski. Polemika z recenzją Krzysztofa Nawotki https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.019 <p><strong>Streszczenie: </strong>Artykuł jest polemiką z recenzją Krzysztofa Nawotki („Klio” 2020, t. 54, s. 199–208) i skupia się na kwestiach źródłoznawczych, metodologii, etniczności antycznej i badaniach nad mitem.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Abstract: </strong>The article is a polemic with a review by Krzysztof Nawotka (“Klio” 2020, vol. 54, pp. 199–208) and focuses on the issues of source studies, methodology, ancien ethnicity and research on myth.</p> Tomasz Mojsik Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 58 2 185 207 10.12775/KLIO.2021.019 Jakość kształcenia na studiach historycznych w Polsce – rekrutacja i proces dyplomowania. https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.017 <p><strong>Abstrakt:</strong>: W latach 2016–2019 Polska Komisja Akredytacyjna dokonała oceny jakości kształcenia na kilkunastu uniwersytetach Polski. Artykuł podsumowuje wnioski z tych ocen w odniesieniu do sposobów weryfikacji wstępnych kompetencji kandydatów na studia historyczne oraz wymagań dotyczących prac dyplomowych związanych z ukończeniem studiów.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Between 2016–2019, the Polish Accreditation Committee assessed the quality of education at several Polish universities. This article summarises the conclusions of these assessments with regard to the methods used to check the initial level of candidates for historical studies and the requirements for diploma theses related to graduation.</p> Dariusz Dolański Agnieszka Janiak-Jasińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 145 165 10.12775/KLIO.2021.017 The plebs contionalis – a perfect popular assembly participant? https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.014 <p>The writings of Cicero refer in various ways, often critically, to citizens who participated in <em>contiones</em>. Contemporary researchers refer to them as <em>plebs contionalis</em>, coined by Christian Meier. Although this term does not occur in the sources, many historians have concluded that it perfectly describes the citizens who regularly attended popular gatherings. The problem, however, is that the issues raised during the <em>contiones</em> were so varied, and these assemblies were held so often that it is hard to imagine that the average<br />citizen could afford to attend them regularly. The author of the article analyses various aspects of this issue and confronts them with the views of other researchers, in order to reach a more general conclusion about the participants in these<em> contiones</em>.</p> Hanna Appel Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 7 24 10.12775/KLIO.2021.010 A citizen-soldier of the Roman Republic: Beyond the literary creation https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.010 <p>The main aim of the article is to draw attention to the distortion of Republican Roman soldiers’ image. Some modern scholars treat the ‘ideal type’ as a reflection of reality and attribute to legionaries the features desired by representatives of the social elite. Meanwhile, it seems that less wealthy citizens created their own vision of the qualities that a Roman soldier should have. This leads to the question of whether the officers and their subordinates had the same understanding of obedience and discipline.</p> Michał Norbert Faszcza Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 25 41 10.12775/KLIO.2021.011 The ruler in the "citizen’s garb" or the image of dynasts in Trajan Decius’s coinage (249–251) https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.015 The article engages the problems of the promoting of the members of Trajan Decius’s family in the representations featured on medallions and coins (249–251). It focuses on the representations which feature two and three representatives of the dynasty. Such shared representations manifested the stability of the rule of the dynasty, the collaboration of the members of the dynasty and the resulting benefits for the empire and its inhabitants, which is indicated by the following ideas: <em>concordia</em>, <em>pietas</em>, <em>liberalitas</em>, promoted by the mint in Rome. The thing that links the imperial coinage with the provincial one is the representation of rules in <em>togae</em>, seated in <em>sellae curules</em>. Such an image of the members of the dynasty was utilised in the coins from Anazarbus. This is testimony to the significance of the imperial representations in the practical sphere, especially in the rivalry of the provincial elites for position in the region of the empire. Agata Aleksandra Kluczek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 43 66 10.12775/KLIO.2021.012 Pietas and impietas as the characteristics of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ citizens and politicians in Rome during the decline of the Republic https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.011 <p>The article discusses the use of religious elements (the contrast between the concepts of pietas vs. impietas) in the characterisation of Roman politicians and citizens during the declining years of the Republic. Pietas symbolised people possessing virtues of divine character, which, consequently, ensured their exceptional position. Accusations of impietas covered a number of cases of violation of religious regulations: inter alia, negligence of rites or sacrifices (neglegentia), profanation of worship or a sacred place, encroaching on or destruction of temples (templa, aedes, fana, sacella), places (e.g. groves – luci) or objects (e.g. altars – arae, statues – simulacra) recognised as holy, as well as tombs (violatio), sacrilegium (sacrilege), violation of the principles of divinatio (contra auspicia), as well as waging a war contrary to religious principles (bellum impium).</p> Henryk Bolesław Kowalski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 67 91 10.12775/KLIO.2021.013 Between Marius, Cinna and Sulla https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.013 <p>Valerii Flacci was one of the most influential families in Rome in the first two decades of the 1st century BC. Cicero called them a nobilissima familia, while they themselves were the apple of the Roman aristocracy and were perceived as the best citizens (optimi cives). During the First Civil War, they were initially associated with the Marian camp. L. Valerius Flaccus (consul of 100 BC) acted as princeps senatus since 86 BC, and his cousin, also L. Valerius Flaccus was consul suffectus in 86 BC, after the death of C. Marius. The brother of L. Valerius Flaccus, Caius, consul of 93 BC, during the reign of Cinna in Rome was the governor of Spain for many years, and later of Transalpine Gaul too. It is known that Valerii Flacci wanted to reach a compromise between Sulla and the Marian camp, and when their efforts failed, they opted for Sulla.<br />Despite the significant role Valerii Flacci played in the Republic, their activities remain overshadowed by other figures of that period. Also, their switch to the Sulla camp in the memory of the ancients was quite poorly recorded, especially when compared with the publicity of the transition of figures such as Metellus Pius, Pompeius or Crassus to Sulla’s side. The author of the presented paper will attempt to coax Valerii Flacci out of the shadows of history, examine the genesis of their defection to the Sulla camp and determine the role they played in this camp in the initial period of Sulla’s dictatorship.</p> Tomasz Ładoń Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 93 107 10.12775/KLIO.2021.014 Publius Crassus – ‘optimus adulescens’ and his unfortunate career https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.012 <p>In the light of the presented findings, it is clear how briefly Publius Licinius Crassus, the younger son of Marcus Crassus, could not only enjoy the offices granted to him, but also the status of being Kornella’s spouse. As for his career, in total it lasted less than six years when, upon coming of age, he began to exercise his first military command, and two years before his tragic death, he was nominated for civil offices – vide triumvir monetalis (55 BC) and augur (between 55 and 53 BC). Contrary to certain hypotheses put forward, he was never allowed to hold the office of quaestor. Although the start of his career was undoubtedly influenced by the protection of Marcus Crassus, his father, contrary to appearances, was a well-educated and eloquent person. Participation in the expedition against the Parthians that ended in tragedy – as Marcus Cicero clearly suggested – prematurely ended the life and career of a gifted and promising young man, who was perhaps one of the most talented of his generation.</p> Ireneusz Łuć Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 109 132 10.12775/KLIO.2021.015 Ad exemplum rei publicae https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/KLIO.202.016 <p>The starting point for these studies is the opinion that Roman colleges were to be a copy of the respublica. I have attempted to prove that 1. with regard to organisation, copying municipal (civic) solutions was usually limited to adopting the nomenclature (names of corporate offices) and some institutions (corporate treasury, gatherings (meetings) of corporate members) known from public life. 2. In the sphere of symbols, referring to civic ideals/civic ethos was one of the bases of corporate identity. Both the system of values and the tools used to create the college’s image, founded on this system, were identical for colleges and the community of citizens. In other words, an ideal college member was also an ideal citizen.</p> Przemysław Wojciechowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 58 2 133 143 10.12775/KLIO.2021.016 ‘Optimus Civis. A Model Citizen and Ruler of Rome in the Republican and Imperial Periods’: Introduction https://apcz.umk.pl/KLIO/article/view/31750 <p>Introduction to an issue. </p> Hanna Appel Przemysław Wojciechowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Klio - Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 58 2 3 6