The clinically relevant diabetic foot syndrome morphology
Keywordsdiabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic foot, morphological and microscopic findings, electron microscopy
Objective: to evaluate the morphological changes in diabetic foot syndrome emphasizing the ultrastructural cellular changes.
Material and methods. Biopsies of the chronic lesions in 120 diabetic foot patients following necessary preparatory stages were studied by histological, histochemical and electron microscopy methods.
Results. The inflammatory infiltration and destruction and involving all layers of skin and soft tissue, the phenomena of vacuolation, apoptosis or karyolysis; tissue edema, diffuse infiltration by neutrophils, vascular plethora with stasis, thrombosis, and necrosis were observed. Microcirculatory tract thrombosis exacerbated tissue ischemia, contributing to the progression of pathology. The macrophages' cytoplasm characterized by the presence of phagocytosed and digested microorganisms often intact inside them. The changes in the status of nuclear and perinuclear material were accompanied by compression and dehydration of the cell, which ended in its fragmentation and the formation of tightly contacting bodies of various shapes
Conclusions. Morphological changes in diabetic foot syndrome are diverse and uneven, occurring not only on tissue and cellular level but involves subcellular and molecular structures, encouraging further research in this field. Foci of destruction and lysis of the newly formed epithelium are characteristic for diabetic foot, which is not observed in the normal wound process.
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