Relationship between hyperventilation syndrome and anxiety disorders in women-internally displaced persons with threatened miscarriage
Keywordspregnancy, threatened miscarriage, hyperventilation syndrome, anxiety
The protracted armed conflicts create not only political, legal, socio-economic problems, form the migration flows of the population, but also affect the somatic and mental health of people. Pregnancy is a critical stage in the development of a woman's personality. According to recent studies, about 54% of women during pregnancy experience anxiety, the prevalence of hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) in population is 6-9.5%. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyperventilation syndrome and to establish its relationship with anxiety disorders in women - internally displaced persons with threatened miscarriage, living in the Luhansk region to improve treatment measures and prevent obstetric and perinatal complications. Material and Methods. The study included 35 pregnant women - IDPs who were hospitalized regarding threatened miscarriage to the hospitals, located in the Luhansk region (group I). The control group consisted of 30 pregnant women with non-complicated obstetric anamnesis and physiological course of pregnancy with similar gestational period of pregnancy and place of residence. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of anxiety, the Nijmegen questionnaire was used to identify the manifestations of HVS. Results and discussion. Manifestations of HVS were observed in 8.57 % of patients of group I, in group II were not recorded. Patients of group I had significantly higher levels of state and trait anxiety, HVS. In group I a positive correlations between the indicators of HVS and indicators of state and trait anxiety were found. Conclusions. Antenatal study of levels of anxiety, manifestations of HVS in pregnant women - IDPs with threatened miscarriage will allow to individualize the approach to the management of pregnancy and if needed to timely develop rehabilitating measures, that will contribute to a successful outcome of the pregnancy and affect the health of the mother and her offspring.
Makhashvili N., Chikovani I., McKee M. et al. Mental disorders and their association with disability among internally displaced persons and returnees in Georgia. J Trauma Stress, 2014 Oct;27(5):509-18. doi: 10.1002/jts.21949.
Morina N, Akhtar A, Barth J, Schnyder U. Psychiatric Disorders in Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons After Forced Displacement: A Systematic Review. Front Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 21;9:433. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00433. PMID: 30298022; PMCID: PMC6160546.
IDCP Global Overview 2015: People Internally Displaced by Conflict and Violence (2015) – http://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/20150506-global-overview-2015-en.pdf.
Internal displacement, available from: http://www.internal-displacement.org/internal-displacement (Accessed 28 April 2020).
Biaggi A., Conroy S., Pawlby S. et al. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2016 Feb;191:62-77. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.014.
King NM, Chambers J, O'Donnell K et al. Anxiety, depression and saliva cortisol in women with a medical disorder during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010 Aug;13(4):339-45. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0139-5.
Kicia M., Skurzak A., Wiktor K. et al. Anxiety and stress in miscarriage. Pol J Public Health. 2015;125(3): 162-165. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjph-2015-0046.
LeMaster JW, Broadbridge CL, Lumley MA, Arnetz JE, Arfken C, Fetters MD,et al. Acculturation and post-migration psychological symptoms among Iraqi refugees: A path analysis. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018;88(1):38-47. doi: 10.1037/ort0000240
Owoaje ET, Uchendu OC, Ajayi TO, Cadmus EO. A review of the health problems of the internally displaced persons in Africa. Niger Postgrad Med J 2016;23:161-71. doi: 10.4103/1117-1936.196242.
Rallis S, Skouteris H, McCabe M, Milgrom J. A prospective examination of depression, anxiety and stress throughout pregnancy. Women Birth. 2014 Dec;27(4):e36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2014.08.002. Epub 2014 Sep 16.
Lee AM, Lam SK, Sze Mun Lau SM, Chong CS, Chui HW, Fong DY. Prevalence, course, and risk factors for antenatal anxiety and depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov;110(5):1102-12. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000287065.59491.70.
Boulding R, Stacey R, Niven R, Fowler SJ. Dysfunctional breathing: a review of the literature and proposal for classification. Eur Respir Rev. 2016 Sep;25(141):287-94. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0088-2015. PMID: 27581828.
Martínez-Moragón E, PerpiñáM, Belloch A, de Diego A. Prevalence of hyperventilation syndrome in patients treated for asthma in a pulmonology clinic. Arch Bronconeumol. 2005;41(5):267. doi: 10.1016 / S1579-2129 (06) 60221-8.
Ahmed SR, El-Sammani Mel-K, Al-Sheeha MA, Aitallah AS, Jabin Khan F, Ahmed SR. Pregnancy outcome in women with threatened miscarriage: a year study. Mater Sociomed. 2012;24(1):26-8. doi: 10.5455/msm.2012.24.26-28.
Blencowe H, Cousens S, Chou D, Oestergaard M, et al. Born too Soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health. 2013;10(1):S2. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-S1-S2.
Chang HH, Larson J, Blencowe H, Spong CY, Howson CP, Cairns-Smith S, et al. Preventing preterm births: analysis of trends and potential reductions with interventions in 39 countries with very high human development index. Lancet. 2013;381(9862):223–234. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61856-X.
van Dixhoorn J, Folgering H. The Nijmegen Questionnaire and dysfunctional breathing. ERJ Open Res. 2015;1(1): 00001-2015. doi: 10.1183 / 23120541.00001-2015.
van Dixhoorn J, Duivenvoorden HJ. Efficacy of Nijmegen Questionnaire in recognition of the hyperventilation syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(2):199-206. doi: 10.1016 / 0022-3999 (85) 90042-X.
Skapinakis P. (2014) Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In: Michalos A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2825.
Hanin YU.L. Issledovanie trevogi v sporte [Anxiety Research in Sports]. Vopr. psihologii. 1978;6:72-5.
LoMauro A, Aliverti A. Respiratory physiology of pregnancy. Breathe (Sheff). 2015 Dec; 11(4): 297–301. doi: 10.1183/20734735.008615.
Kern B, Byrd RP. Hyperventilation Syndrome. - Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/807277-overview.
Jones M, Harvey A, Marston L, O'Connell NE. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013. May 31;(5):CD009041. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009041.pub2.
Faisal-Cury A, Rossi Menezes P. Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2007;10(1):25–32. doi: 10,1007 / s00737-006-0164-6
How to Cite
The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Number of views and downloads: 248
Number of citations: 0