Risk factors for gallbladder cancer
Keywordsgallbladder cancer, cholelithiasis, risk factors
Introduction and purpose: Gallbladder cancer is the most common neoplasm of the bile duct. Early GBC is usually asymptomatic, but is prone to early metastases. This means that most GBC cases are diagnosed very late, and this contributes to the poor prognosis of this disease. Less than 20% of GBC cases qualify for a potentially curable surgical resection at the moment of diagnosis. The article is an overview of available literature describing current epidemiology and etiological risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC). We performed a review of the articles on the etiology and GBC carcinomatosis.
Brief description of the state of knowledge: We divided risk factors of GBC into independent and dependent. The independent risk factors are: age, sex, cholelithiasis, porcelain gallbladder, gallbladder polyp, anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system, high BMI and obesity, and Helicobacter pylori. On the other hand, the dependent risk factors are: age of first pregnancy and number of pregnancies, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, lipid peroxidation products, and aflatoxins. Gallbladder cancer appears to be a multifactorial disease, but the main risk factors are: cholelithiasis and porcelain gallbladder developing from chronic cholecystitis.
Conclusions: For understanding the etiopathology of GBC more studies have to be conducted, what may allow to establish reliable biomarkers and invent new preventive strategies and more effective treatment.
I. Roa, J.C. Araya, M. Villaseca, et al.; Preneoplastic lesions and gallbladder cancer: an estimate of the period required for progression; Gastroenterology, 111 (1996), pp. 232-236
D.L. Bartlett; Gallbladder cancer; Semin Surg Oncol, 19 (2000), pp. 145-155
I. Roa, X. de Aretxabala, J.C. Araya, et al.; Preneoplastic lesion in gallbladder cancer; J Surg Oncol, 93 (2006), pp. 615-623
Nowotwory pęcherzyka żółciowego i przewodów żółciowych zewnątrzwątrobowych; http://onkologia.org.pl
Everson GT, McKinley C, Kern F. Mechanisms of gallstone formation in women. Effects of exogenous estrogen (Premarin) and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid metabolism. J Clin Invest. 1991;87:237–246.
M. Carriaga, D.E. Henson; Liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and pancreas; Cancer, 75 (1995), pp. 171-190
B. Strom, R.D. Soloway, J.L. Rios-Dalenz, et al.; Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: An international collaborative case control study Cancer, 76 (1995), pp. 1747-1756
A.K. Diehl; Epidemiology of gallbladder cancer: a synthesis of recent data J Natl Cancer Int, 65 (1980), pp. 1209-1214
A.K. Diehl; Gallstone size and the risk of gallbladder cancer JAMA, 250 (1983), pp. 2323-2326
S. Towfigh, D.W. McFadden, G.R. Cortina, et al.; Porcelain gallbladder is not associated with gallbladder carcinoma,; Am Surg, 67 (2001), pp. 7-10
A.E. Stephen, D.L. Berger; Carcinoma in the porcelain gallbladder: a relationship revisited; Surgery, 129 (2001), pp. 699-703
M.C. Aldridge, H. Bismuth; Gallbladder cancer: the polyp cancer sequence; Br J Surg, 77 (1990), pp. 363-364
Tanaka K, Ikoma A, Hamada N, Nishida S, Kadono J, Taira A. Biliary tract cancer accompanied by anomalous junction of pancreaticobiliary ductal system in adults. Am J Surg. 1998;175:218–220.
Park M, Song DY, Je Y, Lee JE. Body mass index and biliary tract disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Prev Med. 2014;65:13–22
R.C. van Kruijsdijk, E. van der Wall, F.L. Visseren; Obesity and cancer: the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 18 (10) (2009), pp. 2569-2578
Jackson SS, Van Dyke AL, Zhu B, et al. Anthropometric Risk Factors for Cancers of the Biliary Tract in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project. Cancer Res 2019;79:3973-82.
Solnick JV, Schauer BD. Emergence of diverse Helicobacter species in the pathogenesis of gastric and enterohepatic diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2001; 14: 59–97.
Hughes NR, Bhathal PS. Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder: an immunohistochemical profile and comparison with cholangiocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 2013;66(3):212–7.
Murphy G, Michel A, Taylor PR, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, Virtamo J, et al. Association of seropositivity to Helicobacter species and biliary tract cancer in the ATBC study. Hepatology. 2014;60(6):1963–71.
Moerman CJ, Berns MP, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Runia S. Reproductive history and cancer of the biliary tract in women. Int J Cancer. 1994;57:146–153.
Carey, M.C., Cahalane, M.J., Whither biliary sludge. Gastroenterology, 95,508-523 (1988).
Rammohan A, Cherukuri SD, Sathyanesan J, Palaniappan R, Govindan M. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis masquerading as gallbladder cancer: can it be diagnosed preoperatively? Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2014;2014:253645.
Krishnani N, Shukla S, Jain M, Pandey R, Gupta RK. Fine needle aspiration cytology in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, gallbladder adenocarcinoma and coexistent lesions. Acta Cytol. 2000;44:508–514.
Dixit VK, Prakash A, Gupta A et-al. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1998;43 (5): 940-2.
Esterbauer H, Zollner H, Schaur RJ: Hydroxyalkenals: Cytotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. IS1 Atlas Sci Biochem 1:311-315, 1988.
Shukla VK, Shukla PK, Pandey M, Rao BR, Roy SK. Lipid peroxidation product in bile from patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder: a preliminary study. J Surg Oncol. 1994;56:258–262.
Slater TF, Sawyer BC: The stimulatory effects of carbon tetra chloride on peroxidative reaction in rat liver fractions in vitro. Interaction sites in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem J 123:
Tsuchiya Y, Terao M, Okano K, et al. Mutagenicity and mutagens of the red chilli pepper as gallbladder cancer risk factor in Chilean women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:471-6.
How to Cite
The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Number of views and downloads: 184
Number of citations: 0