Male hypogonadism with its systemic complications
Keywordshypogonadism, systemic complications, prostate cancer, cardiovascular risk, metabolic syndrome
Introduction and purpose: Total lack of testosterone or its level lower than 9-12 mmol/L (250-350 ng/dL) of serum in men is called hypogonadism. Due to the importance of testosterone in male body, hypogonadism usually causes a variety of symptoms, mostly of sexual nature – lack of libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility and associated psychological problems, it can though be the cause of more dangerous changes in the male body. The purpose of this study is to review possible systemic complications of male hypogonadism (with the emphasis on hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) apart from those sex-related.
State of knowledge: The lack of testosterone and gonadotropins was proven to cause a number of negative changes in different systems and various clinical situations. It can negatively impact the condition of skeletal system. Although testosterone is widely thought to increase cardiovascular risk some studies show that the hypogonadism has a negative impact on it as well. Some studies hypothesised the role of hypogonadism in anaemia development, but generally it isn’t taken into account in investigation of this condition. Some studies show the impact of hypogonadism on higher risk of some metabolic and endocrine diseases. The most interesting conclusions were found in literature on oncological implications of testosterone and lack of it. It turns out that there is a number of studies showing the positive impact of relatively higher testosterone concentrations while androgen deprivation therapy is the main therapeutic option in advanced prostate cancer.
Conclusions: Due to very unpleasant and possibly dangerous complications of hypogonadism endocrinologists should stay alert to signs of hypogonadism to be able to start testosterone replacement in the right moment.
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