The analysis of a wide spectrum of activity of Sodium-Glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. A literature review
KeywordsSodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, obesity, weight loss, mechanisms, kidney.
Introduction: The discovery of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors is attributed to phlorizin, which after oral administration caused the excretion of glucose in urine. Later studies showed that this effect was conditioned by SGLT-2 inhibition. However, this substance has not been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus due to its non-selective action. Beeing also active against SGLT-1 transporters in alimentary tract, it causes osmotic diarrhea, dehydration and eventually malnutrition. Currently in Poland, gliflozins are used only in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, mainly type 2, especially with coexisting obesity and high cardio-vascular risk. However, as many human and animal studies show, the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors can be observed in many systems and organs.
Results: The best known non-anti-diabetic action is the reduction of body fat and protection against fat accumulation following a high-calorie diet. These compounds reduce the production of endogenous fatty acids. Moreover, gliflozines lower the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and aminotransferases. They have a protective effect on the liver because they cause remission of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). They lower the cardiovascular risk and have an anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, they inhibit vascular remodeling and improve hemodynamic conditions.
Conclusions: According to many research, gliflozines have many collateral effects which can be used in the clinic as a treatment of diseases other than diabetes or coexisting with it. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases are among the most important health problems in the modern world. SGLT-2 inhibitors can prevent the above-mentioned diseases and reduce them.
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