Effect of subacute poisoning with selected pyrethroids on fresh spatial memory and movement activity in mice
KeywordsCypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, betacyfluthrin, neurotoxicology
Introduction. Pyrethroids are commonly used in agriculture and for indoor insect control. They act as neurotoxins mainly via sodium channels in neurons. People can be exposed to traces of these xenobiotics dermally, with food, at home or at workplace. Three pyrethroids: cypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and betacyfluthrin were chosen for modelling subacute oral poisoning in mice.
The aim of the study was to assess if 7-day exposure to 0.1LD50 of each compound could impair memory and motor activity in mice.
Material and methods. A total of 64 mice were divided into 8 groups of 8 animals: females controls, males controls, females receiving cypermethrin, males receiving cypermethrin, females receiving lambdacyhalothrin, males receiving lambdacyhalothrin, females receiving betacyfluthrin, males receiving betacyfluthrin. They were given 0.1LD50 of a pyrethroid dissolved in canola oil by gavage daily for 7 days. They were tested in a Y-maze on day 1 and 7.
Results. Subacute poisoning with betacyfluthrin significantly reduces locomotor activity in females on day 1 and in both genders on day 7 without effect on fresh spatial memory.
Conclusion. Betacyfluthrin is the most harmful of the tested pesticides.
Chrustek A., Hołyńska-Iwan I ., Dziembowska I. , Bogusiewicz J., Wróblewski M., Cwynar A., Olszewska-Słonina D.: Current Research on the Safety of Pyrethroids Used as Insecticides. Medicina (Kaunas) 2018, 54(4),61.doi: 10.3390/medicina54040061.
Matsuo N.: Discovery and Development of Pyrethroid Insecticides. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2019,95(7),378-400.doi: 10.2183/pjab.95.027.
Field L.M., Emyr Davies T.G., O'Reilly A.O., Williamson M.S., Wallace B.A.: Voltage-gated sodium channels as targets for pyrethroid insecticides. Eur Biophys J. 2017,46(7),675-679. doi: 10.1007/s00249-016-1195-1.
Perkins A., Walters F., Sievert J., Rhodes B., Morrissey B., Karr C.J. :
Home Use of a Pyrethroid-Containing Pesticide and Facial Paresthesia in a Toddler: A Case Report. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016, 13(8), 829. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13080829.
Zortéa T., Baretta D., Maccari A.P., Segat J.C., Boiago E.S., Sousa J.P., Da Silva A.S.: Influence of Cypermethrin on Avoidance Behavior, Survival and Reproduction of Folsomia Candida in Soil. Chemosphere. 2015, 122, 94-98. doi:1016/j.chemosphere.2014.11.018.
Page P., Ganswindt A , Schoeman J , Venter G , Guthrie A.:
The effect of alphacypermethrin-treated mesh protection against African horse sickness virus vectors on jet stall microclimate, clinical variables and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites of horses. BMC Vet Res. 2017,13(1),283. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-1198-x.
Belay Y .T.: Study of the principles in the first phase of experimental pharmacology: the basic step with assumption hypothesis. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019,20(1),30. doi: 10.1186/s40360-019-0306-x.PMID: 31113474.
Elhalwagy M.E., Abd-Alrahman S.H., Nahas A.A., Ziada R.M., Mohamady A.H.: Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015, 8(5),7297-305.
Extension Toxicology Network. Cyfluthrin http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/cyfluthrin-ext.html Accessed 15.05.2020.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. BETA-CYFLUTHRIN (1RS, 3RS; 1RS, 3SR)-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane- carboxylic acid (RS)-cyano-(4-fluoro-3- phenoxy-phenyl)-methyl ester. FAO Specifications and evaluations for plant protection products. 2016.
Birolli W.G., Vacondio B., Alvarenga N., Seleghim M.H.R., Porto A.L.M.:
Enantioselective biodegradation of the pyrethroid (±)-lambda-cyhalothrin by marine-derived fungi. Chemosphere. 2018,197,651-660. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.054.
Chen S., Deng Y., Chang C., Lee J., Cheng Y., Cui Z., Zhou J., He F., Hu M., Zhang L.H.: Pathway and kinetics of cyhalothrin biodegradation by Bacillus thuringiensis strain ZS-19.Sci Rep 2015, 8784, doi: 10.1038/srep08784.
Tomar M., Kataria S.K., Kumar A.: Evaluation of Acute toxicity of Lambda Cyhalothrin in Mus musculus L. Indian journal of experimental biology 2015, 53(8),551-555.
Wolansky M.J., Gennings C., DeVito M.J., Crofton K.M.: Evidence for Dose-Additive Effects of Pyrethroids on Motor Activity in Rats. Environ Health Perspect. 2009, 117(10), 1563–1570.
OECD (Organisation for European Co-operation and Development) Test Guideline 424. OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. Neurotoxicity Study in Rodents. 1997. Accessed 15.05.2020.
Crofton K.M.. Reiter L.W.: Effects of two pyrethroid insecticides on motor activity and the acoustic startle response in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1984;75:318–328.
Singh AK, Tiwari MN, Prakash O, Singh MP. A Current Review of Cypermethrin-Induced Neurotoxicity and Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2012, 10(1), 64-71.doi: 10.2174/157015912799362779.
Sirisha N., Bhavani M., Rudra J.T., Rajavardhana T., Kumar P., Ushanandini T., Reddenna L., Sreedhar V.: Lambda-Cyhalothrin: An Unusual Pyrethroid Poisoning. EAS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.2019, 1(1),5-6.
Abreu-Villaça Y., Levin E.D.: Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides. Environ Int. 2017, 99, 55-77, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.019.
Etterson M., Garber K., Odenkirchen E.: Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in North American agroecosystems. PLoS One. 2017,12(5),e0176998. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176998.
How to Cite
LicenseThe periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons non-exclusive license (CC BY-ND 4.0).
Number of views and downloads: 60
Number of citations: 0