Cytogenetic study of buccal epitelium in patients with neonetal sepsis, whose parents lived permanently in different environmental conditions
Keywordsneonatal sepsis, buccal epithelium, cytological examination, pollution
The micronucleus test is a generally accepted and available method for the cytogenetic assessment of the mutagenic effect of factors of various natures. Currently, this test is one of the non-invasive methods of surveying the population that are under the influence of environmental pollution.
Purpose of the study: to determine the features of the karyological indicators of the buccal epithelium in children with neonatal sepsis, whose parents lived permanently in different environmental conditions.
Material and methods. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive survey of 260 newborns suffering neonatal sepsis in 2016-2018 was carried out. The group-forming feature of a comprehensive assessment of the long-term burden on the body of newborns’ parents in anthropogenic pollution of air, water and soil in the areas of the region became the proposed coefficient of ecological risk (CER) taking into account the environmental situation in regional centers.
Thus, the first clinical group (main) included patients with neonatal sepsis, whose parents lived permanently in places with CER 2.0 and more and with unfavorable environmental characteristics of the regional center. The second group (comparison) was formed by newborns with sepsis, whose parents lived permanently in areas with a low risk of adverse effects of these environmental factors on their body (CER < 2.0). Micronuclear test of exfoliative buccal epithelium in patients with neonatal sepsis was performed and evaluated in the immunological laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases of BSMU according to the method of Kalaeva V.N.
Results and discussion. In the main group, the proportion of children with a high risk of cytogenetic disorders significantly prevailed with a slight decrease in the quota of patients with a low risk. So, in group I with a low risk of cytogenetic disorders there were 42.1% of cases, with an average risk of -5.3%, and with a high risk of -52.7% of cases. In the comparison group, there were 54.5%, respectively, with a low risk of cytogenetic disorders, (P> 0.05) cases, with an average risk -12.1%, (P> 0.05), and with a high risk -33.3% , (P = 0.05) cases.
Conclusions. The results of the karyological test of the exfoliatic buccal epithelium make it possible to note that cytogenetic disorders and, in some cases, disorders in cell kinetics in the form of proliferation and apoptosis were found significantly more often in the newborns of the main group compared with children in the comparison group. The index of accumulation of cytogenetic disorders was also significantly higher in patients of group I due to the predominance of patients with a high risk of cytogenetic disorders.
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