The quantity, quality, and daily distribution of protein supplementation in maximizing muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training
Keywordsproteins, resistance training, muscles hypertrophy, diet
Introduction and purpose: Resistance training (RT) combined with sufficient protein intake (PI) stimulates muscle hypertrophy. There are many factors determining the influence of PI on muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the study is to analyze the current state of knowledge on protein supplementation in the context of optimizing the effects of RT-induced muscles hypertrophy.
Description of the state of knowledge: The quality of protein supplements is a factor that has a significant impact on the degree to which they increase MPS. Protein meals containing all EAAs will stimulate MPS most potently. The most important factor determining the effectiveness of protein supplementation is the amount of protein intake per day in relation to body weight. PI in amounts greater than ~1.6 g/kg b.w./day does not further increase the rate of fat free mass gains induced by RE. Supplementing more protein at breakfast than at dinner is more effective in increasing muscle mass gain in response to RT.
Summary: The quantity, quality and source of protien supplements, that are daily administered, are important factors contributing to the efectiveness of the supplementation. Distributing the doses of protein supplement throughout the day and consuming greater amount of protein for breakfast rather than dinner may also be beneficial in terms of augmenting muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Optimizing these conditions is conducive to achieving a positive net protein balance, which result in improving RT-induced muscle mass gain.
S. Joanisse, C. Lim, J. McKendry, J. C. Mcleod, T. Stokes, and S. M. Phillips, “Recent advances in understanding resistance exercise training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in humans.,” F1000Res, vol. 9, 2020, doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21588.1.
M. A. Pikosky, C. J. Cifelli, S. Agarwal, and V. L. Fulgoni, “Association of Dietary Protein Intake and Grip Strength Among Adults Aged 19+ Years: NHANES 2011–2014 Analysis,” Front Nutr, vol. 9, p. 873512, May 2022, doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.873512.
V. C. Figueiredo, “Revisiting the roles of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by exercise,” American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 317, no. 5, pp. R709–R718, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00162.2019.
C. Mcglory, M. C. Devries, and S. M. Phillips, “Skeletal muscle and resistance exercise training; the role of protein synthesis in recovery and remodeling,” J Appl Physiol, vol. 122, pp. 541–548, 2017, doi: 10.1152/jappl.
L. Deldicque, “Protein Intake and Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy: An Update.,” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 7, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.3390/nu12072023.
R. Jäger et al., “International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Protein and exercise,” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 1. BioMed Central Ltd., Jun. 20, 2017. doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8.
T. Stokes, A. J. Hector, R. W. Morton, C. McGlory, and S. M. Phillips, “Recent perspectives regarding the role of dietary protein for the promotion of muscle hypertrophy with resistance exercise training,” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 2. MDPI AG, Feb. 07, 2018. doi: 10.3390/nu10020180.
H. M. Lynch, M. P. Buman, J. M. Dickinson, L. B. Ransdell, C. S. Johnston, and C. M. Wharton, “No significant differences in muscle growth and strength development when consuming soy and whey protein supplements matched for leucine following a 12 week resistance training program in men and women: A randomized trial,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 17, no. 11, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113871.
D. L. Plotkin, K. Delcastillo, D. W. van Every, K. D. Tipton, A. A. Aragon, and B. J. Schoenfeld, “Isolated leucine and branched-chain amino acid supplementation for enhancing muscular strength and hypertrophy: A narrative review,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 3. Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., pp. 292–301, 2021. doi: 10.1123/IJSNEM.2020-0356.
M. Messina, H. Lynch, J. M. Dickinson, and K. E. Reed, “No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise,” Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 674–685, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0071.
H. P. Cintineo, M. A. Arent, J. Antonio, and S. M. Arent, “Effects of Protein Supplementation on Performance and Recovery in Resistance and Endurance Training.,” Front Nutr, vol. 5, p. 83, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00083.
L. H. A Castro et al., “Comparative Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Concentrated, Hydrolyzed, and Isolated Whey Protein Supplementation on Body Composition of Physical Activity Practitioners.,” Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 9, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.3390/nu11092047.
C.-B. Kim, J.-H. Park, H.-S. Park, H.-J. Kim, and J.-J. Park, “Effects of Whey Protein Supplement on 4-Week Resistance Exercise-Induced Improvements in Muscle Mass and Isokinetic Muscular Function under Dietary Control,” Nutrients, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 1003, Feb. 2023, doi: 10.3390/nu15041003.
C. M. Kerksick et al., “ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations,” J Int Soc Sports Nutr, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 38, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y.
R. W. Morton et al., “A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults,” Br J Sports Med, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 376–384, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-097608.
C. T. Haun et al., “Effects of Graded Whey Supplementation During Extreme-Volume Resistance Training.,” Front Nutr, vol. 5, p. 84, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00084.
J. Roberts, A. Zinchenko, C. Suckling, L. Smith, J. Johnstone, and M. Henselmans, “The short-term effect of high versus moderate protein intake on recovery after strength training in resistance-trained individuals,” J Int Soc Sports Nutr, vol. 14, no. 1, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0201-z.
R. W. Davies, B. P. Carson, and P. M. Jakeman, “The effect of whey protein supplementation on the temporal recovery of muscle function following resistance training: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 2. MDPI AG, Feb. 16, 2018. doi: 10.3390/nu10020221.
J. L. Hudson, R. E. B. Iii, and W. W. Campbell, “Protein Distribution and Muscle-Related Outcomes: Does the Evidence Support the Concept?,” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 5, May 2020, doi: 10.3390/nu12051441.
J. Yasuda, T. Tomita, T. Arimitsu, and S. Fujita, “Evenly Distributed Protein Intake over 3 Meals Augments Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Healthy Young Men,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 150, no. 7, pp. 1845–1851, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa101.
S. Aoyama et al., “Distribution of dietary protein intake in daily meals influences skeletal muscle hypertrophy via the muscle clock,” Cell Rep, vol. 36, no. 1, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109336.
H.-K. Kim et al., “Supplementation of Protein at Breakfast Rather Than at Dinner and Lunch Is Effective on Skeletal Muscle Mass in Older Adults,” Front Nutr, vol. 8, p. 797004, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.797004.
W. Kume, J. Yasuda, and T. Hashimoto, “Acute effect of the timing of resistance exercise and nutrient intake on muscle protein breakdown,” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 4, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.3390/nu12041177.
J. Wirth, E. Hillesheim, and L. Brennan, “The Role of Protein Intake and its Timing on Body Composition and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J Nutr, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 1443–1460, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa049.
Y. Chen, Y. Liang, H. Guo, K. Meng, J. Qiu, and D. Benardot, “Muscle-Related Effect of Whey Protein and Vitamin D3 Supplementation Provided before or after Bedtime in Males Undergoing Resistance Training.,” Nutrients, vol. 14, no. 11, May 2022, doi: 10.3390/nu14112289.
M. J. Ormsbee, P. G. Saracino, M. C. Morrissey, J. Donaldson, L. I. Rentería, and A. J. McKune, “Pre-sleep protein supplementation after an acute bout of evening resistance exercise does not improve next day performance or recovery in resistance trained men,” J Int Soc Sports Nutr, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 164–178, Dec. 2022, doi: 10.1080/15502783.2022.2036451.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Mateusz Pawlina, Karolina Ziętara, Aleksandra Orzechowska, Aleksander Oskroba, Natalia Pawełczak, Karolina Raksa, Bartłomiej Zielonka, Ilona Kowalczyk, Piotr Pawłowski, Cezary Stawikowski
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Number of views and downloads: 349
Number of citations: 0