Impact of various dietary interventions on the reduction of symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
KeywordsPCOS, policystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia
Introduction and purpose. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder diagnosed in women. Symptoms include menstrual disorders, infertility, acne, seborrhea, hirsutism and carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Treatment is based on the reduction of symptoms, as it is not possible to completely cure the disease. To achieve the optimal therapeutic effect, it is advisable to change eating habits. The aim of the study is to summarize the effectiveness of the mediterranean diet, ketogenic diet, lactose-free diet and supplementation in reducing PCOS symptoms.
State of knowledge. The mediterranean diet, which is includes large amounts of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, leads to a reduction in the severity of PCOS symptoms by reducing the bioavailability of androgens and lowering the concentration of triglycerides and glucose in the blood serum. A high-fat ketogenic diet reduces postprandial insulin release, improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, it causes a significant reduction in body fat, which in turn reduces the level of free testosterone and improves the LH/FSH ratio. Milk proteins have a strong effect on the secretion of lactose and incretin, however, their effect on insulin resistance is still unclear.
Conclusions. The most effective nutritional model is the mediterranean diet, as it reduces the risk of other diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and osteoarthritis. The ketogenic diet remains an alternative solution, but it should be used for a limited time. The least effective intervention turns out to be a lactose-free diet. To obtain optimal therapeutic effects, the important role of PUFA, inositol and probiotic supplementation should not be forgotten.
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