Application of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism
Keywordsbruxism, botulinum toxin, botox, off-label use, sleep bruxism, square jaw
Bruxism is a commonly reported functional para-function of the oral cavity. Its symptoms are quite characteristic and include, above all, excessive clenching and grinding of the teeth. (2) Other complaints most frequently reported by patients are headaches, pain in the temporomandibular joint, excessive tooth abrasion, damage to dentures, waking up at night, visual effect - the so-called "square jaw". The etiology is multifactorial therefore it is difficult to treat its symptoms.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Its mechanism is based on the reversible inhibition of acetylcholine release in neuromuscular junctions. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin is one of the treatments of bruxism. So far, this method is used off-label. Looking at the promising results of randomized studies on the use of botulinum toxin in bruxism, this may change in the near future. As shown by previous studies, it is not an ideal method, but nevertheless it is one of the most effective and the best for the patient. The downside to the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism symptoms are, inter alia, contraindications to the use of this drug and the duration of its action - 3-6 months.
This systematic review of selected articles and studies aims to examine the available literature in order to determine the effectiveness of the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism and to assess whether it is currently the most effective method.
Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for literature.
Young Joo Shim ,Hee Jin Lee, Keun Jeong Park, Hyung Tack Kim , Il Hee Hong, Seong Taek Kim , Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Managing Sleep Bruxism: A Randomized and Placebo-Controlled Trial, Toxins (Basel) . 2020 Mar 9;12(3):168., PMID: 32182879 PMCID: PMC7150956
Robert S Hardy , Stephen J Bonsor , The efficacy of occlusal splints in the treatment of bruxism: A systematic review, J Dent . 2021 May;108:103621., doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103621. Epub 2021 Feb 27, PMID: 33652054
Miłosz Lewandowski ,Zuzanna Świerczewska ,Wioletta Barańska-Rybak, Off-Label Use of Botulinum Toxin in Dermatology-Current State of the Art , Molecules . 2022 May 13;27(10):3143. doi: 10.3390/molecules27103143, PMID: 35630620 PMCID: PMC9147387
Beddis H, Pemberton M, Davies S., Sleep bruxism: an overview for clinicians., Br Dent J. 2018 Sep 28;225(6):497-501. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.757. Epub 2018 Sep 21. PMID: 30237554
Samer Mostafa Ali, Ahmed Yaseen Alqutaibi , Afaf Aboalrejal, Dina Mohamed Elawady , Botulinum toxin and occlusal splints for the management of sleep bruxism in individuals with implant overdentures: A randomized controlled trial, Saudi Dent J . 2021 Dec;33(8):1004-1011. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2021.07.001. Epub 2021 Jul 10., PMID: 34938043 PMCID: PMC8665162
T Fernández-Núñez , S Amghar-Maach, C Gay-Escoda, Efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism: Systematic review, Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal . 2019 Jul 1;24(4):e416-e424. doi: 10.4317/medoral.22923 PMID: 31246937 PMCID: PMC6667018
Kamran Habib Awan, The therapeutic usage of botulinum toxin (Botox) in non-cosmetic head and neck conditions - An evidence based review, Saudi Pharm J . 2017 Jan;25(1):18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.024. Epub 2016 Apr 30, PMID: 28223858 PMCID: PMC5310164
Kyung-Hwan Kwon, Kyung Su Shin, Sung Hee Yeon, Dae Gun Kwon , Application of botulinum toxin in maxillofacial field: part I. Bruxism and square jaw, Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg . 2019 Oct 1;41(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s40902-019-0218-0. eCollection 2019 Dec. , PMID: 31649901 PMCID: PMC6768934
Mehmet Emre Yurttutan ,Kevser Tütüncüler Sancak, Ayşegül Mine Tüzüner, Which Treatment Is Effective for Bruxism: Occlusal Splints or Botulinum Toxin? , J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 2019 Dec;77(12):2431-2438. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2019.06.005. Epub 2019 Jun 19. , PMID: 31302066
Eduardo E Castrillon,Fernando G Exposto, Sleep Bruxism and Pain, Dent Clin North Am . 2018 Oct;62(4):657-663. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Aug 14. , PMID: 30189988
Nícea B Pardo, Robert B Kerstein, Mario C Júnior, Leila S Ferreira, Márcio Abrahão , Botulinum toxin type A for controlling bruxism assessed with computerized occlusal analysis: A pilot study, Cranio . 2022 May;40(3):207-216. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2020.1724458. Epub 2020 Mar 2., PMID: 3212228
Daniele Manfredini, Junia Serra-Negra, Fabio Carboncini, Frank Lobbezoo , Current Concepts of Bruxism, Int J Prosthodont . 2017 September/October;30(5):437–438. doi: 10.11607/ijp.5210. Epub 2017 Aug 14., PMID: 28806429.
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