Analysis of upper and lower limb movement in infants in response to optic flow - preliminary research
Keywordsoptic flow, motion analysis, rehabilitation, infants
Introduction: optic flow is studied in many scientific areas such as automation, robotics, biomechanics and neuropsychology. People who are not visually impaired use this mechanism to move around, usually without realising its complexity. It consists of information provided by the sense of sight and analysed in the central nervous system about the speed and direction of a moving object and the direction and amplitude of the angular and linear components of one's body. However, little is known about how this mechanism develops in the young child.
Objective: Observation of upper and lower limb movement in infants between 4 and 12 weeks. of age under the influence of optic flow stimulation as a stimulus. Development of an optimal test protocol and adaptation of the author's research station.
Material and method: 16 infants aged from 4 to 12 weeks were initially invited to the study, of which 14 infants were finally included in the study group. The motor response test consisted of two stages. Stage I (static trial): the stimulus was a stationary black and white chessboard pattern; stage II (dynamic trial): the chessboard pattern moved toward the child at a speed of 0.17m/s. Cameras recorded the test in both stages.
Results: the children showed increased limb movement under the influence of optical flow (test stage II: dynamic test) compared to stimulation with a fixed pattern (test stage I: static test).
Conclusions: a response to dynamic versus static stimuli was observed in 11 of 14 children, but testing in one-month-olds is unreliable due to poor head control.
ANDERSON D.I., KOBAYASHI Y., HAMEL K., RIVERA M., CAMPOS J.J., BARBU-ROTH M., Effects of support surface and optic flow on step-like movements in pre-crawling and crawling infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 2016, 42, 104-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.11.005.
BARBU-ROTH M., ANDERSON D.I., DESPRÈS A., STREETER R.J., CABROL D., TRUJILLO M., CAMPOS J.J., PROVASI J., Air stepping in response to optic flows that move Toward and Away from the neonate. Dev Psychobiol, 2014, 56(5), 1142-1149. DOI: 10.1002/dev.21174.
BARBU-ROTH M., ANDERSON D.I., DESPRES A., PROVASI J., CABROL D., CAMPOS J.J., Neonatal stepping in relation to terrestrial optic flow. Child Dev, 2009, 80(1), 8-14. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01241.x.
BARBU-ROTH M., ANDERSON D.I., STREETER R.J., COMBROUZE M., PARK J., SCHULTZ B., CAMPOS J.J., GOFFINET F., PROVASI J., Why does infant stepping disappear and can it be stimulated by optic flow? Child Dev, 2015, 86(2), 441-455. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12305.
CUSCHIERI S., The STROBE guidelines. Saudi J Anaesth, 2019, 13(Suppl 1), S31-S34. DOI: 10.4103/sja.SJA_543_18.
EDWARD D.P., KAUFMAN L.M., Anatomy, development, and physiology of the visual system. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 2003, 50(1), 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955(02)00132-3.
FORMA V., ANDERSON D.I., GOFFINET F., BARBU-ROTH M., Effect of optic flows on newborn crawling. Dev Psychobiol, 2018, 60(5), 497-510. DOI: 10.1002/dev.21634.
FREEMANTLE N., GRILLI R., GRIMSHAW J., OXMAN A., Implementing findings of medical research: the Cochrane Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. Qual Health Care, 1995, 4(1), 45-47. DOI: 10.1136/qshc.4.1.45.
GASTALDI L., LISCO G., PASTORELLI S., Evaluation of functional methods for human movement modelling. Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2015, 17(4), 32-38.
Gibson J.J., The perception of the visual world. The perception of the visual world. 1950, Oxford, England: Houghton Mifflin. xii, 242-xii, 242.
IWANSKA D., URBANIK C., The sense of position and movement in the knee joint during voluntary movements. Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2013, 15(3), 11-17.
JOUEN F., LEPECQ J.-C., GAPENNE O., BERTENTHAL B.I., Optic flow sensitivity in neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 2000, 23(3), 271-284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(01)00044-3.
LAPPE M., BREMMER F., VAN DEN BERG A.V., Perception of self-motion from visual flow. Trends Cogn Sci, 1999, 3(9), 329-336. DOI: 10.1016/s1364-6613(99)01364-9.
Lucia M. Vaina, Scott A. Beardsley, Rushton S.K., Optic Flow and Beyond. 2004: Springer Dordrecht.
MOERCHEN V.A., SAEED M.E., Infant visual attention and step responsiveness to optic flow during treadmill stepping. Infant Behavior and Development, 2012, 35(4), 711-718. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.05.008.
NÁÑEZ J., YONAS A., Effects of luminance and texture motion on infant defensive reactions to optical collision. Infant Behavior and Development, 1994, 17(2), 165-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(94)90052-3.
Pakuła B., Widzenie: procesy i funkcje 2020, Kalisz: Akademia ćwiczę oko.
PAWLAK-ANDRYSZCZYK Ż.E., ANDRYSZCZYK M., SOBIESKA M., MOTOR REACTIONS OF INFANTS IN RESPONSE TO OPTICAL FLOW – LITERATURE REVIEW. IRONS, 2021, 36, 6. DOI: 10.19271/IRONS-000141-2021-36.
POPA D.P., SAMSON M., [Reconsideration of the stages in the maturation of visual function in children]. Oftalmologia, 1995, 39(2), 119-124.
THELEN E., RIDLEY-JOHNSON R., FISHER D.M., Shifting patterns of bilateral coordination and lateral dominance in the leg movements of young infants. Dev Psychobiol, 1983, 16(1), 29-46. DOI: 10.1002/dev.420160105.
Topor I., Rosenblum L.P., Hatton D.D., Visual conditions and functional vision early intervention issues. 2004, Early Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments: Chapel Hill, NC.
Vasta R., Maith M.M., Miller S.A., Psychologia dziecka. 1995, Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
Wulff J., Sevilla-Lara L., Black M.J. Optical flow in mostly rigid scenes. in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 2017.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Żaneta Pawlak-Andryszczyk, Marek Andryszczyk, Tomasz Topoliński, Magdalena Sobieska
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Number of views and downloads: 78
Number of citations: 0