The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the onset of speech disorders and communication problems in children and adolescents
KeywordsPAE, speech development, communication problems, FASD, children, adolescents
Alcohol consumption has many negative effects on the human body, and has been proven to have teratogenic effects on fetal development. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with growth deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Despite such effects, there are still many women who do not give up the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy.
This article, based on a review of available studies on PubMed, examines whether prenatal alcohol exposure can cause problems in children's speech development and promote communication problems in children, as well as in adolescents.
Longitudinal observations on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have shown that children up to the age of 3 after PAE have difficulties in receptive or expressive communication compared to a group not prenatally exposed to alcohol. Alcohol has been shown to be the overriding factor causing disorders in the development of the brain and nervous system, which are the main structures responsible for the process of speech development and also the formation of communication skills.
Studies among adolescents with PAE have shown that they have weaker spoken and written language skills than those without PAE or with low PAE. This also translates into difficulties in developing their communication skills, which can make it much more difficult for them to become independent and move smoothly through the difficult period of adolescence.
World Health Organization . Guidelines for the identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy . Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014
Graves L, Carson G, Poole N et al . Guideline 405: Screening and counseling for alcohol use during pregnancy . J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2020; 42 :1158-1173.e1.
Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J. Estimating national, Regional and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Lancet Global Health 2017; 5 :e290-9.
L. Denny, S.Coles, R. Blitz; "Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders " American Family Physician, 2017; 96 (8): 515-522
J. Piaget "Speech and thinking of the child" publishing house PWN, Warsaw 2005, p.31
Obladen M. Ignored Papers, Invented Quotations: A History of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neonatology. 2021;118(6):647-653. doi: 10.1159/000518534. Epub 2021 Sep 14. PMID: 34535605.
Hemingway SJA, Davies JK, Jirikowic T, Olson EM. What proportion of the brain structural and functional abnormalities observed among children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is explained by their prenatal alcohol exposure and their other prenatal and postnatal risks? Adv Pediatr Res. 2020;7:41. Epub 2020 Jul 6. PMID: 33335991; PMCID: PMC7744001.
Hendricks G, Malcolm-Smith S, Adnams C, Stein DJ, Donald KAM. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on language, speech and communication outcomes: a review of longitudinal studies. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2019 Apr;31(2):74-83. doi: 10.1017/neu.2018.28. Epub 2018 Nov 19. PMID: 30449293; PMCID: PMC7056946.
Kippin NR, Leitão S, Watkins R, Finlay-Jones A. Oral and written communication skills of adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) compared with those with no/low PAE: A systematic review. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2021 Jul;56(4):694-718. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12644. Epub 2021 Jun 16. PMID: 34137136; PMCID: PMC9292204.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Gryc, Jakub Lipiec, Monika Grudzień, Jagna Golemo, Rafał Świdziński
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The periodical offers access to content in the Open Access system under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Number of views and downloads: 87
Number of citations: 0