Spinoza’s Ethics and the Problem of Transcendental Cognition

Anna Tomaszewska

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/szhf.2013.050

Abstract


The article makes an attempt at comparing two perspectives from which philosophical cognition starts – a perspective which can be encountered in Spinoza’s Ethics and a perspective which can be encountered in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. In the first case, a finite subject of the philosophical cognition embarks on the cognition of the substance (Nature, God), that is, reality in its comprehensiveness; in the second case, a finite subject of philosophical cognition reflects upon the totality of the field of possible experience (empirical cognition), uncovering the conditions of its possibility. Both kinds of cognition consist in a pursuit to comprehend what is necessary and strictly universal. I claim that as much as the source of the cognition at stake is, on Spinoza’s account, provided by the intuitive grasp of the ontological identity of the subject and the whole of the reality (substance, Nature, God), on Kant account, indicating the source or the ground of the transcendental cognition proves more difficult (if not impossible), even though it might be granted that as in Spinoza’s cognition of the substance, also in the cognition which furnishes the judgments of the Critique of Pure Reason, intuition plays the decisive role.

Keywords


Spinoza; Kant; transcendental cognition; intuition; necessity; mind

Full Text:

PDF (Polish)

References


Allison H. E., Kant’s Transcendental Idealism. An Interpretation and Defense, New Haven and London 2004.

Allison H. E., On Naturalizing Kant’s Transcendental Psychology, "Dialectica" 2-4/49 1995.

Descartes R., Medytacje o pierwszej filozofii. Zarzuty uczonych mężów i odpowiedzi autora. Rozmowa z Burmanem, tłum. M. i K. Ajdukiewiczowie i inni, Kęty 2001.

Kant I., Krytyka czystego rozumu, tłum. R. Ingarden, Kęty 2001.

Kołakowski L., Jednostka i nieskończoność. Wolność i antynomie wolności w filozofii Spinozy, Warszawa 2012.

Pereboom D., Kant on Justification in Transcendental Philosophy, "Synthése" 1/85, 1990. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00873193

Siemek M., Idea transcendentalizmu u Fichtego i Kanta. Studium z dziejów filozoficznej problematyki wiedzy, Warszawa 1977.

Siemek M., Transcendentalizm jako stanowisko epistemologiczne, [w:] J. Garewicz (red.), Dziedzictwo Kanta. Materiały z sesji kantowskiej, Warszawa 1976.

Spinoza B., Etyka w porządku geometrycznym dowiedziona, przeł. I. Myślicki, oprac. L. Kołakowski, Warszawa 2008.

Spinoza B., Traktat o poprawie rozumu, [w:] tegoż, Traktaty, tłum. I. Halpern-Myślicki, Kęty 2003.

Tomasz z Akwinu, Kwestie dyskutowane o prawdzie, tłum. A. Aduszkiewicz i inni, t. 1, Kęty 1998.

Wittgenstein L., Tractatus logico-philosophicus, tłum. B. Wolniewicz, Warszawa 2002.

Żelazna J., Substancja jak światło? Wybrane pojęcia i problemy filozofii Spinozy, Toruń 2010.






Partnerzy platformy czasopism