Studies in the History of Philosophy <p>Quarterly of the Institute of Philosophy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University.</p> <p>The journal is issued in an electronic and printed form. An electronic edition constitutes a reference version of the magazine.</p> <p>Indexed on <strong>SCOPUS, DOAJ, The Philosopher`s Index, ERIH PLUS</strong>, and <strong>Index</strong> <strong>Copernicus</strong><strong> </strong>databases.</p> <p>Scoring of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 70</p> <p>p-ISSN 2083-1978<br />e-ISSN 2391-775X</p> Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu en-US Studies in the History of Philosophy 2083-1978 Murray Rothbard, Anarchist <p>This essay is in honor of Murray N. Rothbard. He made many important, nay, exquisite contributions to belles letters, not limited to economics, history, philosophy, sociology; even to movie reviews of all things. The present essay is an attempt to honor him by making the case for free market anarchism, the thesis that ran through most of his intellect output.</p> Walter E. Block Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 7 41 10.12775/szhf.2021.018 Enlightenment and Social Progress – Back to the Enlightenment <p>The world today operates in a highly fragmented manner and in constant motion. The question of social progress is tempered. Morality does not determine the direction of social development and social interest. Scientific schematizing of our social reality and education is done intentionally in order to achieve maximum profits and success in the sciences, whose justification is questionable under the&nbsp;influence of meeting the requirements of the time. It is therefore necessary to review the issue and return to the roots of reflection on the meaning of enlightenment and progress, hence the&nbsp;Enlightenment. Kant and Rousseau are very specific philosophers within the Enlightenment. In many issues they are different from the other philosophers of the Enlightenment. In many ways Kant overcomes the Enlightenment and both think about the question of social progress differently from their contemporaries.</p> Marek Stachoň Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 43 63 10.12775/szhf.2021.019 Philosophy at the Evangelical College in Prešov in the Contexts of European Intellectual Development <p>The leitmotif of the paper is an analysis and interpretation of philosophy at the Evangelical College in Prešov, Slovakia, in the contexts of European intellectual development from the 17<sup>th</sup> to the 20<sup>th</sup> century. The research focuses on the response to and reception of Francis Bacon’s philosophy in the work of his Prešov follower – Ján Bayer, reflections on Kant’s aesthetics in the work of the Prešov professor Michal Greguš and the explanation of Nietzsche’s immoralism in the work of Jaromír Červenka. The paper emphasises that philosophy at the Evangelical College contributed to the development of spiritual culture in Slovakia and became part of its cultural heritage. According to the author of the paper, the value of philosophy at the Evangelical College in Prešov lies precisely (and above all) in its ability to creatively reinterpret and apply the key concepts of European philosophy into the philosophical systems of Bayer, Greguš and Červenka.</p> Rudolf Dupkala Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 65 81 10.12775/szhf.2021.020 The Sociological Context of Historical and Philosophical Research on the Ideology of Liberalism by Mykola Konrad <p>Mykola Konrad (1876–1941) was an Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest, Doctor of Theology and Philosophy, Ukrainian historian of philosophy. The written heritage of the thinker, in addition to study on the history of philosophy, consists of works devoted to ideologies, in particular, liberalism, his vision of which Konrad outlined in his work <em>Main Directions of Contemporary Sociology. Part 1. Liberalism</em> (Lviv: Ed. “Bohosloviia”, Part 21, 1936). In order to study Father Conrad’s vision of liberalism in the relevant religious and philosophical context, it was necessary to find out why the thinker reviewed this tradition of political thought in the context of sociology. It was important to compare Conrad’s views with those of well-known Catholic thinkers. As a result of the study, it was established that the determination and vision of the sociology development by M. Konrad and European neo-Thomist philosophers A. Ushenichnik, A. Roshkovskyi, A. Shimanskyi, V. Cathrein, J. Biderliak is similar. Its sources are the social and ethical teachings of the Catholic Church, built on the principles of Neo-Thomism. They identified the subject and objectives of Catholic sociology, aimed at solving social issues, which formed the need to study ideologies. Consequently, Father M. Conrad’s consideration of liberalism within the framework of sociology was quite correct. The next task is to investigate what the Ukrainian thinker’s understanding of liberalism was and what influence the sociological context had on him.</p> Oksana Sheremeta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 83 100 10.12775/szhf.2021.021 Recepcja pojęcia nieświadomości w filozofii Johannesa Volkelta <p>The article presents the view of the neo-Kantian Johannes Volkelt on the genesis and evolution of the concept of unconsciousness and introduces the reader as well to the term, rather unpopular in philosophy. Difficulties with intuitive comprehension of unconsciousness and its verbal definition mean the ambiguity and cloudiness of the idea and its designation, which is multiplied by analogous issues concerning consciousness. The text, which is a summary of Volkelt’s thought, shows the failure to place unconsciousness in the ideal or real area and the bold attempt by Eduard von Hartmann to break out of the impasse. The conclusion of the work is that unconsciousness requires further research both historically and systematically.</p> Marek Gmerczyński Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 101 125 10.12775/szhf.2021.022 Scjentystyczna szkoła filozofii marksistowskiej w Polsce i rewizjonizm <p><strong>Scientist Marxist Philosophy in Poland and Revisionism</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article was to discuss scientist Marxist philosophy in Poland as one of the varieties of the broad trend of revisionism in Marxism. Its main goals and assumptions can be read as a modernization of dialectical materialism in the spirit of critical realism and critical rationalism. The achievements of Scientist Marxism were compared with the perspective of Humanist Marxism, considered in Poland to be the main version of Marxist revisionism, and also with assumptions of Poznań Methodological School, which is considered as local version of Analytical Marxism.</p> Damian Michał Winczewski Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 127 151 10.12775/szhf.2021.023