THE NUCLEAR DISPUTE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH KOREA

Julia Monika Mysłowska, Sylwia Sosin

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/TSM.2017.006

Abstract


The American-North Korean conflict on nuclear weapons has been making headlines for a long time. The potential of both countries is unquestionable and has an enormous influence on the entire world. The nuclear dispute between the United States and the DPRK began with the Korean War in 1950s and has been growing since. North Korea has strengthen its nuclear capability and is threatening the United States, the territory of Guam island, and the entire human nation. The regime is the only country which has tested nuclear weapons in the 21st century. The American government has been raising the sanctions against Pyongyang and China has been trying to invite both sides for negotiations and to ease the worsening tensions on the peninsula. Washington puts a lot of hopes into Beijing being able to handle the threats from North Korea, but Chinese claim they do not have enough leverage to hamper Kim Jong Un’s regime. North Koreans, living under the constant control from the regime and propaganda, are separated from their families and the rest of the world. The Winter Olympics, which will be held by South Korea in February, 2018, gave both Koreas a chance to talk and to participate in the event together again, and maybe it is a possibility for the two sides to negotiate further agreements.

Keywords


Nuclear; USA; Korea; weapon; Guam; China; Pyongyang

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agence France-Prasse. (2018, January 6). North Korea ‘likely’ to join Winter Olympics, says regime official. The Guardian. Retrieved January 8, 2018, from https://www.theguardian. com/world/2018/jan/06/north-korea-likely-to-join-winter-olympics-says-regime-official

Allen, N. (2017, August 8). North Korea examining plan to strike Guam’ as Donald Trump warns threats will be met with ‘fire and fury’. The Telegraph. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/08/08/north-korea-has-produced-miniaturised-nuclear-warhead-fit-inside/

Berlinger, J. (2017, April 26). Why hasn’t North Korea conducted its sixth nuclear test? CNN. Retrieved January 7, 2018, from http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/25/asia/north -korea-nuclear-test-timing/

Branigan, T. (2009, November 19). Barack Obama calls on North Korea to end nuclear provocation. The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/nov/19/barack-obama-north-korea-nuclear

Davenport, K. (2017 January 4). Chronology of U.S. – North Korean Nuclear and Missile Diplomacy. Arms Control Association. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/dprkchron#2006

Felden, E. (2016, October 9). Nuclear conflict in North Korea: a spiral of repeated failure. DW. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from http://www.dw.com/en/nuclear-conflict-with -north-korea-a-spiral-of-repeated-failure/a-35999751

Fu, Y. (May, 2017). The Korean Nuclear Issue: Past, Present and Future. A Chinese Perspective. John L. Thornton China Center at Brookings. p.1–27. Retrieved January 5, 2018, from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/north-korean-nuclear -issue-fu-ying.pdf

Gladstone, R. (2017, August 5). U.N. Security Council Imposes Punishing New Sanctions on North Korea. The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www. nytimes.com/2017/08/05/world/asia/north-korea-sanctions-united-nations.html?mtrref=en.wikipedia.org&gwh=0A8EB0EC92C9AF0FC7EB8BD2654DD3CC&gwt=pay

Helmore, E. (2017, April 9). Tillerson: China agrees on ‘action’ on North Korea as navy strike group sails. The Guardian. Retrieved January 5, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2017/apr/09/us-navy-strike-group-north-korea-peninsula-syria-missile-strike Juche Ideology. (2011).

Official webpage of the DPR of Korea. Retrieved January 17, 2018 from http://www.korea-dpr.com/juche_ideology.html

Kemp, T. (2017, September 3). North Korea hydrogen bomb: read the full announcement from Pyongyang. CNBC. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/03/ north-korea-hydrogen-bomb-read-the-full-announcement-from-pyongyang.html

Lee, J.B. (2009, February 17). US Deployment of the Nuclear Weapons in 1950s South Korea and North Korea’s Nuclear Development. The Asian-Pacific Journal. Retrieved January 13, 2018, http://apjjf.org/-Lee-Jae-Bong/3053/article.html

Levi, N. (2009). Zarys stosunków między Polską Republiką Ludową, a Koreańska Republiką Ludowo-Demokratyczną. Świat i Polska wobec globalnych wyzwań. Warszawa. Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN.

McCurry, J. (2018, January 10). Moon Jae-in credits Donald Trump for inter-Korea talks. The Guardian. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/ jan/10/moon-jae-in-credits-donald-trump-for-inter-korea-talks THE NUCLEAR DISPUTE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH KOREA 81

McCurry, J. (2018, January 9). North Korea agrees to send athletes to Winter Olympics after talks with South. The Guardian. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from https://www.theguard ian.com/world/2018/jan/09/north-south-korea-talks-winter-olympics-nuclear

Merica, D. (2017, June 21). Trump to China: Thanks for trying with North Korea. CNN. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/20/politics/trump -china-north-korea/index.html Millet, A. R. (n.d.).

Korean War. Britannica. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www. britannica.com/event/

Korean-War Mullen, J. (2015, May 15). North Korea says it can miniaturize nuclear weapons. CNN. Retrieved January 5, 2018, http://edition.cnn.com/2015/05/20/asia/north-korea-nuclear -weapons/ Nakashima,

E., Fifield, A. & Warrick, J. (2017, June 25). North Korea could cross ICBM threshold next year, U.S. officials warn in new assessment. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2018, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/ north-korea-could-cross-icbm-threshold-next-year-us-officials-warn-in-new-assessment/2017/07/25/4107dc4a-70af-11e7–8f39-eeb7d3a2d304_story.html?utm_term=.15bed 0018f2e

Okamoto, N. (2017, March 13). The Story of a North Korean Defector. Huffpost. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/the-story-of-a-north -korean-defector-yeonmi-park-to_us_58c4c742e4b070e55af9f00c

Panetta, L.E. (2012, July 27). USA. Secretary of Defense Speech. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from http://archive.defense.gov/Speeches/Speech. aspx?SpeechID=1714

Pike, J. (2010, March 2). Nuclear Weapon Program. globalsecurity.org. Retrieved January 13, 2018, from https://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/dprk/nuke.htm

Rathi, A. (2016, January 7). Why it’s so difficult to build a hydrogen bomb. Quartz. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://qz.com/588519/why-its-so-difficult-to-build-a-hydro gen-bomb/ Rice targets 6 ‘outposts of tyranny’. (2005, January 19).

The Washington Times. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/jan/19/20050119 -120236-9054r/

Rich, M. (2017, July 5). In North Korea, ‘Surgical Strike’ could spin into ‘Worst Kind of Fighting’. The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2018 from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/05/world/asia/north-korea-south-us-nuclear-war.html?mtrref=www. google.pl&gwh=BCB5229024AB0E06ED422E70E3C223DF&gwt=pay

Rurarz, J. P. (2009). Historia Korei. (2nd ed.), Warszawa. Smith, J.R. (1994, March 31), Perry sharply warns North Korea, The Washington Post, Retrieved January 3, 2018, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1994/03/31/ perry-sharply-warns-north-korea/752e1057–804e-4b63-a1b3–90e6baab6374/ ?utm_term=.d622ea5b6638

Tillerson, R. (2017, December 27). I am proud of our Diplomacy. New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/27/opinion/rex-tillerson -state-department-diplomacy.html?mtrref=www.theguardian.com&gwh=A0CC509FD4679A11F78427508CEBA40D&gwt=pay&assetType=opinion 82 Jç½®

MùÝÁÊóÝ», Sù½ó® SÊÝ®Ä Trump claims China ‘caught red-handed’ transferring oil to North Korea. (2017, December 28). The Guardian. Retrieved January 7, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/ us-news/2017/dec/28/trump-very-disappointed-china-alleged-oil-supplies-north-korea

Trump, D. J. (2017, September 3). Twitter. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://twitter. com/realDonaldTrump/status/904307898213433344

Union of Concerned Scientists. (2017, April 20), Press Conference on the North Korean Missile Crisis, p.5, Retrieved January 3, 2018, from https://www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/ files/attach/2017/12/Transcript-UCS%20Press-Conference-North%20Korea-4–20–17. Pdf

Urban, T. (2013, September 27). 20 Things I learned while I was in North Korea. Wait But Why. Retrieved January 13, 2018, from https://waitbutwhy.com/2013/09/20-things-i -learned-while-i-was-in.html US-DPRK

Agreed Framework. (1994,December 10) Geneva, p.2, Retrieved January 3,2018 from http://www.nti.org/media/pdfs/aptagframe.pdf

Wagner, J. (2017, August 12). Trump predicts ‘tenfold’ boost in tourism for Guam amid threats by North Korea. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2017/08/11/trump-predicts-tourism-spike-for-guam-in-wake-of-n-korea-threat-reassures-islands-governor/?utm_term =.587464c310d3

Wang, Y. (2017, March 7). Foreign Minister Wang Yi Meets the Press. Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. Retrieved January 5, 2018 http://www. fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1444204.shtml

Ward, A. (2017, September 3). North Korea just tested its most powerful nuclear test yet. VOX. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://www.vox.com/2017/9/3/16248844/ north-korea-nuclear-test-september-3–2017

Weaver, M., Haas, B. & McCurry, J. (2017, April 3). Trump says US will act alone on North Korea if China fails to help. The Guardian. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from https://www. theguardian.com/us-news/2017/apr/02/donald-trump-north-korea-china






___________________________

Creative Commons License
The journal offers access to the contents in the open access system on the principles of non-exclusive license Creative Commons (CC BY-ND 3.0).

(old ISSN: 1689-8168)

Declaration of the original version: the original version of the Torun International Studies is the electronic version.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism