Cities and human security

Agnieszka Szpak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/TIS.2015.011

Abstract


Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are components of human security. The subject matter is indeed fascinating as fascinating are cities themselves. They are dynamic, energetic, innovative and constantly evolving. The general thesis of the article is that cities may and do greatly contribute to human security.


Keywords


cities, human security, human rights, sustainable development, environmental security

Full Text:

PDF

References


Auby, J.-B. (2011). Mega-Cities, Glocalisation and the Law of the Future. In S. Muller, S. Zouridis, M. Frishman, L. Kistemaker (eds.), The Law of the Future and the Future of Law. Oslo: Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher.

Barber, B. (2014). Gdyby burmistrzowie rządzili światem. Dysfunkcyjne kraje, rozkwitające miasta. Warszawa: Muza.

Bendyk, E. (2014). Na rozstaju dróg. Miasta i ludzie. Polityka. Wydanie specjalne, 10, 111-115.

Bendyk, E. (2014).Widok z okna. Miasta i ludzie. Polityka. Wydanie specjalne, 10, 6-8.

Blank, Y. (2006). The City and the World. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 3, 868-931.

Burszta, J. (2016). Forsander: Fiński tygiel. Magazyn Miasta, 3 (11), 26-29.

Charter of European Cities and Town Towards Sustainability. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/aalborg_charter.pdf.

Cities Alliance (About us, Who we are). Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.citiesalliance.org/

Cities for Peace. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.ips-dc.org/projects/cities-for-peace/

Cities of change. Cooperation of cities In the field of city development. The good practice of the Cities – The partners of the Project (2015), Poznań.

Cities of migration. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://citiesofmigration.ca/CityNet – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://citynet-ap.org/

City Protocol – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://cityprotocol.org/Common Purpose Towards a More Effective OSCE. Final Report and Recommendations of the Eminent Persons on Strengthening the Effectiveness of the OSCE, 27 June 2005. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.osce.org/cio/15805

Constitution of the World Organisation of United Cities and Local Governments, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.uclg.org/en/organisation/structure/constitution-rules

C40 Cities – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.c40.org/ Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.un.org/documents/instruments/docs_en.asp

Eurocities – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.eurocities.eu/

Frug, G. E. & Barron, D. J. (2006). International Local Government. The Urban Lawyer, 38,1-63.

Global Partnership on Cities and Biodiversity and the International Day for Biological Diversity 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from https://www.cbd.int/idb/2009/about/celebration/global-partnership.shtml

Human Security Now, Commission on Human Security (2003). Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.un.org/humansecurity/content/human-security-now

ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.iclei.org/

International Union of Local Authorities – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/resources/organizations/iula.html

Karwińska, A. & Brzosko-Sermak, A. (2014). Dobrze funkcjonujące, miasta. Koncepcje, cechy, perspektywy rozwoju. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie.

Kutz, Ch. (2009). Democratic Security. In C. M. Bailliet (ed.) Security: A Multidisciplinary Normative Approach, Leiden-Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Kuźniar, R. (2002). Prawa człowieka. Prawo instytucje, stosunki międzynarodowe, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Megacities Foundation – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.megacitiesproject.org/

National League of Cities – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.nlc.org/

Nijman, J. (2011). The Future of the City and the International Law of the Future. In S. Muller, S. Zouridis, M. Frishman, L. Kistemaker (Eds.), The Law of the Future and the Future of Law, Oslo: Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher.

Nowrot, K. (1998-1999). Legal Consequences of Globalization: The Status of Non-Governmental Organizations Under International Law. Global Legal Studies Journal, 6 (2), 579-645.

NY Mayor’s Office for International Affairs. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/ia/html/home/home.shtml

Pluijm van der, R. (2007). City Diplomacy: The Expanding Role of Cities in International Politics. Clingendael: Institute of International Relations.

Porras, I. M. (2008). The City and International Law: in Pursuit of Sustainable Development. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 36 (3).

Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change A more secure world: our shared responsibility. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/pdf/historical/hlp_more_secure_world.pdf

Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/cities/

Thakur, R. (2006). The United Nations, Peace and Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tigerstrom von, B. (2007). Human Security and International Law. Prospects and Problems, Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing.

Tigerstrom von, B. (2006). International Law and the Concept of Human Security. In U. Dolgopol, J. Gardam (eds.), The Challenge of Conflict: International Law Responses, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Toruń twin cities. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.tmpt.torun.pl/twincities.html

United Cities and Local Governments – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.uclg.org/

United Nations Conference on Environment & Development Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992 AGENDA 21. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf

Urbanek, A. (2015). Współczesny człowiek w przestrzeni bezpieczeństwa: w poszukiwaniu teoretyczności bezpieczeństwa personalnego, Słupsk: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pomorskiej.

U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.usmayors.org/climateprotection/agreement.htm

World Association of Major Metropolises – website. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.metropolis.org/

World Mayors Summit on Climate – Mayors push for hope after Copenhagen. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://www.iclei.org/climate-roadmap/advocacy/global-lgevents/2010-world-mayors-summit-on-climate-mexico-city.html

Human Development Report. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1993

Human Development Report. Retrieved January 15, 2016 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-1994






___________________________

Creative Commons License
The journal offers access to the contents in the open access system on the principles of non-exclusive license Creative Commons (CC BY-ND 3.0).

(old ISSN: 1689-8168)

Declaration of the original version: the original version of the Torun International Studies is the electronic version.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism