Are the Europarties Real Political Parties? National Parties’ Involvement in Multi-level Structures of European Political Parties

Beata Kosowska-Gąstoł

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/HiP.2017.009

Abstrakt


Europarties are regarded as multi-level organizations, like parties operating in federal or devolved states. Examined is whether they can even be treated as political parties sensu stricto and whether the concepts used to test the relations between the national and regional party structures (vertical integration, influence) could be used to study relationships between the national and European structures. It was indicated that Europarties can be considered both as the additional arenas of national parties’ activity and independent political actors consisted of national parties (multi-level parties). The second perspective was used to research 13 existing Europarties. In result, the similarities between the PES and PEL, but differences between the EPP and PES in term of vertical integration and influence were shown. Hence, in the article was proven that there is no one model of relations between the national and European party structures and the parties differ from each other as far as their internal structures are concerned.

Słowa kluczowe


Europarties; multi-level approach; multi-level organization; vertical integration

Pełny tekst:

PDF (English)

Bibliografia


Armbrecht, S. (2008). Politische Parteien im europäischen Verfassungsverbund. Badan-Baden: Nomos.

Bardi, L. (2005). Parties and Party Systems in the European Union. National and Supranational Dimensions. In: K.R. Luther, F. Müller-Rommel (eds.), Political Parties in the New Europe. Political and Analytical Challenges (p. 293–321). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bardi, L., Bressanelli, E., Calossi, E., Gagatek, W., Mair P., Pizzimenti, E. (2010). How to Create a Transnational Party System. Brussels: European Parliament.

Dalton, R.J., Wattenberg, M.P. (eds) (2002). Parties without Partisans. Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Delwit, P., Külahci, E., Walle van de C. (eds.). (2001). Les federations européennes de partis. Organisation et influence. Bruxelles: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles.

Deschouwer, K. (2000). The European Multi-level Party Systems: Towards a Framework of Analysis. EUI Working Papers, RSC No. 2000/47.

Deschouwer, K. (2003). Political Parties in Multi-layered Systems. European Urban and Regional Studies 10 (3), 213–226.

Deschouwer, K. (2006). Political Parties as Multi-level Organizations. In: R.S. Katz, W. Crotty (eds.), Handbook of Party Politics (p. 291–300). London: Sage Publications.

Detterbeck, K. (2012). Multi-level Party Politics in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fabre, E. (2011). Measuring Party Organization: The Vertical Dimension of the Multilevel Organization of State-Wide Parties in Spain and the UK. Party Politics, 17(3), 343–363.

Fiala, P., Mareš, M., Sokol, P. (2007). Eurostrany. Politické strany na evropské úrovni. Brno: Barrister & Principal.

Gaffney, J. (eds.). (1996). Political Parties and the European Union, London. New York: Routledge.

Gagatek, W. (2009). European Political Parties as Campaign Organisations: Towards a Greater Politicisation of the European Parliament Elections. Brussels: Centre for European Studies.

Hanley, D. (2008). Beyond the Nation State. Parties in the Era of European Integration. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hepburn, E. (2010). Using Europe: Territorial Party Strategies in a Multi-Level System. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Hix, S. (1996). The Transnational Party Federations. In: J. Gaffney (eds.), Political Parties and the European Union (308–331). London: Routledge.

Hix, S., Lord, Ch. (1997). Political Parties in the European Union. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Hix, S., Lord, Ch. (1997). Political Parties in the European Union. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Hough, D., Jeffery, Ch. (eds.). (2006). Devolution and Electoral Politics. Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press.

Jacuński, M. (2006). Transnarodowe federacje partii politycznych w systemie politycznym UE. (PhD Thesis). University of Wrocław.

Johansson, K.M. (2004). Towards a Theory of Federations of Political Parties in Multilevel Europe: at the Nexus of International Relations and Comparative Politics. In: P. Delwit, E. Külahci, C. Van de Walle (eds.), The Europarties. Organisation and Influence (p. 18–44). Brussels: CEVIPOL Free University of Brussels.

Johansson, K.M., Zervakis, P. (eds.). (2002). European Political Parties between Cooperation and Integration. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

Johansson, K.M., Zervakis, P. (eds.). (2002). European Political Parties between Cooperation and Integration. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

Katz, R.S., Mair, P. (eds.). (1994). How Parties Organize. Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Kreppel, A. (2002). The European Parliament and Supranational Party System. A Study in Institutional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Külahci, E. (ed.). (2012). Europeanisation and Party Politics. How the EU Affects Domestic Actors, Patterns and Systems. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Ladrech, R. (2002). Europeanization and Political Parties. Towards a Framework for Analysis. Party Politics, 8(4), 389–403.

Lawson, K. (1980). Political Parties and Linkage. In: K. Lawson (ed.), Political parties and

Linkage. A Comparative Perspective (p. 3–24 ). New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

Lehmann, W. (ed.). (2009). The Selection of Candidates for the European Parliament by National Parties and the Impact of European Political Parties. Brussels: European Parliament.

Lewis, P.G., Mansfeldová, Z. (eds.). (2006). The European Union and Party Politics in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Luther, K.R., Müller-Rommel, F. (eds.). (2005). Political Parties in the New Europe. Political and Analytical Challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marquand, D. (1978). Towards a Europe of the Parties. Political Quarterly, IL, 425–445.

Mittag, J. (ed.). (2006). Politische Parteien und europäische Integration. Entwicklung und Perspektiven transnationaler Parteien Kooperation in Europe. Essen: Klartext.

Mittag, J., Steuwer J. (2010). Politische Parteien in der EU. Wien: Vacultas Verlag.

Moon, D.S., Bratberg, Ø. (2010). Conceptualising the Multi-Level Party: Two Complementary Approaches. Politics, 30(1), 52–60.

Niedermayer, O. (1983). Europäische Parteien? Zur grenzüberschreitenden Interaktion politischer Parteien im Rahmen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus Verlag.

Niedermayer, O. (1983). Europäische Parteien? Zur grenzüberschreitenden Interaktion politischer Parteien im Rahmen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus Verlag.

Oppelland, T. (2006). Vorreiter der Parteienintegration? Zur Bedeutung der Fraktionen im Europäischen Parlament für die Bildung supranationaler europäischer Parteien. In: J. Mittag (ed.), Politische Parteien und europäische Integration. Entwicklung und Perspektiven transnationaler Parteienkooperation in Europe (p. 497–513). Essen: Klartext.

Poguntke, T., Webb, P. (eds.). (2005). The Presidentialization of Politics. Oxford: Oxfords University Press.

Poguntke, T., Aylott, N., Ladrech, R., Carter, E., Luther, K.R. (eds.). (2007). The Europeanization of National Political Parties: Power and Organizational Adaptation. London, New York: Routledge.

Prat de, R.-A. (2009). Political Parties and European Integration, Translated to English: J. Rosenstein. Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang.

Pridham, G., Pridham, P. (1981). Transnational Party Co-operation and European Integration. The process towards direct elections. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Regulation (EC) No 1524/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003 on the regulations governing political parties at the

European level and the rules regarding their funding, OJ EU, L 343, 27.12.2007, pp. 5–8.

Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 on the regulations governing political parties at European level and the rules regarding their funding, OJ EU, L 297, 15.11.2003, pp. 1–4.

Sandström, C. (2004). The European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party. From co-operation to integration. In: P. Delwit, E. Külahci, C. van de Walle (eds.), The Europarties. Organisation and Influence (p. 175–184). Brussels: CEVIPOL Free University of Brussels.

Sartori, G. (2005). Parties and Party Systems. A Framework for Analysis. Essex: ECPR Press.

Schonfeld, W.S. (1983). Political Parties: The Functional Approach and the Structural Alternative. Comparative Politics, 15(4), 477–499.

Sobolewska-Myślik, K. (2005). Rozwój europartii jako ponadnarodowych struktur życia politycznego – szanse, możliwości i problemy. In: Z. Leszczyński, S. Sadowski (eds.), Suwerenność państwa we współczesnych stosunkach międzynarodowych (p. 274–285). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo WSP TWP.

Swenden, W., Maddens, B. (eds.). (2009). Territorial Party Politics in Western Europe. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thorlakson, L. (2009). Patterns of Party Integration, Influence and Autonomy in Seven Federations. Party Politics, 159(2), 157–177.

Thorlakson, L. (2013). Measuring Vertical Integration in Parties with Multi-Level Systems Data. Party Politics, 19(5), 713–734.

Timuş, N., Lightfoot, S. (eds.). (2014). Europarties Between “Deepening” and “Widening”. Acta Politica. Special Issue, 49 (1).

van Biezen, I., Hopkin, J. (2006). Party Organization in Multi-Level Context. In: D. Hough, C. Jeffery (eds.), Devolution and Electoral Politics (p. 14–36). Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press.

van Houten, P. (2009). Multi-Level Relations in Political Parties. A Delegation Approach. Party Politics, 15(2), 137–156.

Vieira, M. (2011). Does a European Party System Exist? A Conceptual Framework for the analysis, Cahiers du CEVIPOL.2011/1. Les working papers de Bruxelles.

von Arnim, H.H., Schurig, M. (2004). The European Party Financing Regulation. Münster: Lit Verlag.

Wolinetz, S.B., Carty, R.K. (2006). Disconnected Competition in Canada. In: D. Hough, C. Jeffery (eds.), Devolution and electoral politics (p. 54–75). Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press.








ISSN: 1899-5160
eISSN: 2391-7652

Partnerzy platformy czasopism