Tokotrienole – mniej znana strona witaminy E

Stanisław Witkowski

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/HERB.2016.001

Abstrakt


Witaminę E stanowi grupa ośmiu związków – tokochromanoli (czterech tokoferoli i czterech tokotrienoli), wykazujących aktywność najaktywniejszego i najważniejszego przedstawiciela: α-tokoferolu. Do niedawna uwaga badaczy skupiała się niemal wyłącznie na α-tokoferolu, który jest preferencyjnie zatrzymywany w or-ganizmie, gdzie pełni liczne funkcje: antyoksydacyjną, stabilizującą i regulującą właściwości strukturalno-funkcjonalne błon komórkowych, a także regulującą aktywność licznych enzymów. Pozostałe tokoferole i tokotrienole są szybko metabolizowane i wydalane z organizmu. Z tego względu traktowano je jako zbędne i nie przypisywano im większego znaczenia biologicznego. Od kilku dekad wzrasta zainteresowanie badaczy innymi tokochromanolami, zwłaszcza γ-tokoferolem oraz tokotrienolami, które wykazują często aktywność biologiczną całkowicie odmienną niż α-tokoferol. Tokotrienole obniżają poziom cholesterolu hamując reduktazę HMG-CoA, kluczowy enzym w biosyntezie cholesterolu. Wykazują aktywność przeciwnowotworową przeciwdziałając angiogenezie i proliferacji komórek, a także indukując apoptozę i wzmacniając układ odpornościowy. W stężeniach nanomolowych działają neuroprotekcyjnie, szczególnie chroniąc komórki nerwowe przed toksycznym działaniem glutaminianu. Wykazują także działanie kardioprotekcyjne, a także antyosteoporotyczne. W artykule przedstawione zostały najważniejsze aspekty działania biologicznego tokotrienoli, które przejawiają interesujące działanie prozdrowotne w aspekcie zarówno suplementacji, jaki potencjalnych zastosowań terapeutycznych.

Słowa kluczowe


witamina E; tokotrienole; aktywność biologiczna

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Bibliografia


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