Remarks on the Iconographic Motif of the Birdman in Mesopotamian Glyptic Art of the Third Millennium BC

Dominika Majchrzak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EtudTrav.31.012

Abstrakt


The iconographic motif of the birdman emerged in Mesopotamian glyptic art in the Early Dynastic period and disappeared at the end of the Akkadian period. Its meaning remains ambiguous, particularly due to the fact that the figure is represented in scenes of varying character and it cannot be identified with any character known from myths. Sometimes, the creature may be recognised as a deity based on a horned crown, yet this is not always the case. Among the deities attested in the scenes with birdman, one can easily identify Shamash and Enki. The examined material contains 62 published seals or seal impressions with the birdman motif, both from the Early Dynastic and the Akkadian period. The latest monographic studies of this subject were published in the 1950s. Interpretations presented by the authors of said works, though often quoted in the research on the motif, seem to lack proper argumentation and, to an large extent, are outdated due to a considerable progress of the research on Sumero-Akkadian iconography and an increase, although modest, in study material, among other things. In light of the above, it is worth analysing this motif one more time.


Słowa kluczowe


birdman; glyptic; seal; seal impression; Akkadian period; Early Dynastic period; Enki; Shamash

Pełny tekst:

PDF

Bibliografia


Amiet, P. 1952: L’homme-oiseau dans l’art mésopotamien, Orientalia 21/2, 149–167

Amiet, P. 1980: La Glyptique Mésopotamienne Archaïque, Paris

Black, J., Green, A. 1992: Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, An Illustrated Dictionary, London

Boehmer, R.M. 1965: Die Entwicklung der Glyptik während der Akkad-Zeit, Untersuchungen zur Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie 4, Berlin

Brentjes, B. 1983: Alte Siegelkunst des Vorderen Orients, Leipzig

Buchanan, B. 1966: Catalogue of Ancient Near Eastern Seals in the Ashmolean Museum 1: Cylinder Seals, London

Buren, E.D. van 1933: The Flowing Vase and the God With Streams, Berlin

Buren, E.D. van 1953: An Investigation of a New Theory concerning the Bird-Man, Orientalia 22/1, 47–58

Canby, J.V. 2001: The “Ur-Nammu” Stela, University Museum Monograph 110, Philadelphia

Collon, D. 1982: Catalogue of the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum. Cylinder Seals II: Akkadian – Post Akkadian – Ur III Periods, London

Collon, D. 1995a: Ancient Near Eastern Art, Berkeley

Collon, D. 1995b: Filling motifs, [in:] Finkbeiner, U., Dittmann, R., Hauptmann, H. (Eds), Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens: Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, Mainz a/Rhein, 69–76

Delaporte, L. 1923: Musée du Louvre. Catalogue des cylindres, cachets et pierres gravées de style Oriental II: Acquisitions, Paris

Eliade, M. 1961: Images and Symbols. Studies in Religious Symbolism, New York

Epic of Gilgamesh: The Epic of Gilgamesh. A New Translation, transl. A. George, London 1999

Frankfort, H. 1955: Stratifi ed Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region, OIP LXXII, Chicago

Green, A. 1994: Mischwesen. B. Archäologie, [in:] Edzard, D.O. (Ed.), RLA 8, Berlin-New York, 246–264

Hempelmann, R. 2004: „Gottschiff “ und „Zikkurratbau“ auf Vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr., AOAT 312, Münster

Kramer, S.N. 1944: Sumerian mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C., Philadelphia

Lambert, W.G. 1966: Ancient Near Eastern Seals in Birmingham Collections, Iraq XXVIII/1, 64–83

Ławecka, D. 2009: North Babylonian Motifs in Early Dynastic Mesopotamian Glyptic, [in:] Drewnowska, O. (Ed.), Here & There, Across the Ancient Near East. Studies in Honour of Krystyna Łyczkowska, Warszawa, 121–148

Ławecka, D. 2010: Północna Mezopotamia w okresie wczesnodynastycznym, Warszawa

Matthews, D.M. 1997: The Early Glyptic of Tell Brak, Cylinder Seals of Third Millenium Syria, OBO, Series Archaeologica 15, Fribourg-Göttingen

Matthews, R.J., Matthews, W., McDonald, H. 1994: Excavations at Tell Brak, 1994, Iraq LVI, 177–194

Moortgat, A. 1988: Vorderasiatische Rollsiegel: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Steinschneidekunst, Berlin

Ravn, O.E. 1960: A catalogue of Oriental Cylinder Seals and Impressions in the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen

Rova, E. 2012: A New Group of Seal Impressions from Tell Beydar, [in:] Matthews, R. et al. (Eds), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 12 April – 16 April 2010, the British Museum and UCL, London, vol. 3. Fieldwork & Recent Research Posters, Wiesbaden, 151–166

Speiser, E.A. 1935: Excavations at Tepe Gawra I, Philadelphia

Steinkeller, P. 1992: Early Semitic Literature and Third Millennium Seals with Mythological Motifs, [in:] Fronzaroli, P. (Ed.), Literature and Literary Language at Ebla, QuadSem 18, Florence, 243–275

Vogelzang, M.E. 1988: Bin šar dadmē. Edition and Analysis of the Akkadian Anzu Poem, Groningen

Ward, W.H. 1910: The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington Wiggermann, F. 1994: Mischwesen. A. Philologisch, [in:] Edzard, D.O. (Ed.), RLA 8, Berlin-New York, 222–244

Wiggermann, F. 2010: The Image of Dumuzi. A Diachronic Analysis, [in:] Stackert, J., Porter, B.M., Wright, D.P. (Eds), Gazing on the Deep: Ancient Near Eastern and Other Studies in Honor of Tzvi Abusch, Bethesda, 327–350

Wolkstein, D., Kramer, S. 1983: Inanna. Queen of the Heaven and Earth. Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer, New York


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Partnerzy platformy czasopism