Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET Rocznik naukowy Instytutu Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Polskiej Akademii Nauk poświęcony archeologii starożytnych i wczesnośredniowiecznych kultur Basenu Morza Śródziemnego, Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki północnej klasyfikowany na liście European Reference Index for Humanities (ERIH). pl-PL etudesettravaux@iksio.pan.pl (Maciej Makowski) greg@umk.pl (Grzegorz Kopcewicz) Tue, 23 Mar 2021 13:56:46 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.001 <p>With this volume of Études and Travaux we would like to present the Centre for the Research on the Egyptian Temple, established at our Institute in 2016, to our colleagues and friends – partners in scientific discussions. The multi-generation team of the Centre consists of researchers connected with the Polish missions working at Temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III at Deir el-Bahari, the Temple of Thutmose I and the small Ramesside temple, both at Qurna, the French mission at Karnak and its studies on the Late period temples, the German and the Swiss missions on Elephantine examining relics of e.g. Ptolemaic-Roman temples, and, starting from 2020, the Italian-Polish mission researching solar temples at Abu Ghurob. This diversity of interests is an important inspiration in undertaking scientific initiatives leading to expansion and confrontation of areas of research and displaying a wide variety in terms of chronology and topography.</p> Ewa Laskowska-Kusztal Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.001 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Two Portraits of Senenmut in the Hatshepsut Temple at Deir el-Bahari https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.002 <p>Two <em>graffiti</em> of Senenmut from the Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari are presented in this paper: one located in the granite portal leading to the Upper Court of the temple, and another in the entrance to the Chapel of Thutmose I in the Royal Mortuary Cult Complex. In addition, photographs of heavily erased <em>graffit</em>i of Senenmut in the entrance to the Chapel of Hatshepsut are published here as well.</p> Mirosław Barwik Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.002 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 New Prayers and Invocations to Hathor among Unpublished Dipinti from the Thutmose III Temple at Deir el-Bahari https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.003 <p>This paper presents a group of nine fragmentarily preserved <em>dipinti</em> from the Temple of Thuthmose III in Deir el-Bahari. The pieces belong to the corpus of <em>dipinti</em> discovered by the Polish Archaeological Mission at the beginning of the 1960s, the bulk of which was already published by the late Marek Marciniak.</p> Mirosław Barwik Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.003 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Decoration of the Columns and Pillars from the Henket-ankh of Thutmose III (Western Thebes) https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.004 <p>The Temple of Millions of Years of Thutmose III called <em>Henket-ankh</em>, located on the West Bank of Thebes, was probably an important and impressive monument of which very little remains nowadays. Previous work at the site, which started already in the first half of the nineteenth century, contributed greatly to the understanding and identification of this complex. The Spanish-Egyptian project that resumed the archaeological works at the site in 2008 improved our knowledge about the temple architectural and decorative features. This paper will focus on the characteristics and decoration of the vertical architectural elements with support function, that is to say columns and pillars, may have had in this temple. The fragments and blocks examined and the few architectural elements preserved in situ have allowed ascertaining of the existence in the temple of polygonal columns with sixteen sides, squared pillars, some of which were of Osiride type, and circular columns that were most likely crowned by Hathoric capitals.</p> Linda Chapon Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.004 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Quelques blocs ptolémaïques inédits de la cour du IXe pylône du domaine d’Amon à Karnak https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.005 This publication unveils a set of fifteen fragmented sandstone blocks currently located in the courtyard of the IXth Pylon of the temple of Amun in Karnak. The study of these inscriptions allows to identify some elements of the offering scenes decorating a number of registers of a monumental doorway dating from the reign of Ptolemy III Evergetes. The exact location inside the Karnak complex of the building to which this door belonged remains still uncertain Abraham I. Fernández Pichel Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.005 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Stela of Haremwia, Chief of the Provisioning Sector of the Temple Workshop (CG 34079 / JE 22011) https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.006 <p>This article is devoted to the description and analysis of the limestone stela of Haremwia from Abydos. It was on display in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo (CG 34079 / JE 22011) and is currently in the storerooms of the Grand Egyptian Museum, Giza. It dates to the period from the mid to the late Eighteenth Dynasty, New Kingdom, and probably from the reign of Amenhotep III, on the basis of its stylistic, iconographic, and epigraphic details. It is extremely well preserved and most of the colours are intact, apart from some damage to the bottom. The stela records a significant title of Haremwia, namely <em>ḥry šnʿ n tȝ wʿbt</em>, ‘chief of the provisioning sector of the temple workshop’. The importance of this stela, above all, is that it records the first attestation of this title on Egyptian monuments. Furthermore, it records Asiatic names of foreign origin for family members. The offering formula in the first register is very interesting due to the retrograde orientation of its hieroglyphic inscription. The author describes the stela, deals with its individual idiosyncrasies, inscriptions, iconographic and phraseological traits, and focuses on the titles and professions of its individuals.</p> Amgad Joseph Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.006 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ramesside Inscriptions and Preparatory Sketches in the Western Wall of Portico of Obelisks of Hatshepsut’s Temple at Deir el-Bahari https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.007 <p>The representations of all the gods on the western wall of the Portico of Obelisks in Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Bahari were destroyed during the Amarna period and restored under the reign of Ramesses II. In this paper, the inscriptions related to those restorations are commented on, along with a set of <em>dipinti</em> drawn on undecorated blocks below the <em>dado</em> lines. Those <em>dipinti</em>, of varying quality, represent the god Amun. Because of their location and form they were probably ‘restoration guidelines’ for the sculptors re-creating the destroyed images of the god. The paper’s aim is to reconfirm the dating of the restorations in this part of the temple and discuss the possible reasons for the <em>dipinti </em>creation.</p> Ewa Józefowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.007 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Donkeys in the Old and Middle Kingdoms According to the Representations and Livestock Counts from Private Tombs https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.008 <p>The Egyptian artist in the Old and Middle Kingdoms showed great interest in representing the details of the physical characteristics and behaviour of various animals surrounding him in the Egyptian environment. However, donkeys seem to have received less attention from the artist than other animals. The paper examines the representations of donkeys in the wall scenes of the Old and Middle Kingdom tombs, and analyses the changing interest in reflecting this animal’s physical traits and behaviour. Finally, studying the role of donkeys in the so-called livestock counts allows us to better understand the phenomenon which is observed in the iconographic sources from the period under investigation<strong>.</strong></p> Miral Lashien Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.008 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Christian Secondary Epigraphy in the Temple of Hatshepsut. Some New Remarks https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.009 <p>Reusage was a common phenomenon in the ancient world. Throughout the history of Egypt, from the very early beginnings until modern times, tombs, temples, quarries or loose architectural elements were adapted for new purposes. The Temple of Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) was no exception. Our knowledge about the Graeco-Roman to Late Antique periods comes mainly from the movable artefacts such as ostraka, papyri and secondary epigraphy preserved on the walls. In 2018, an attempt was made to recapture the faint, but still noticeable, drawings and texts left there by monks and Christian visitors. Contrary to previous studies, a more contextual approach was applied in the course of this re-examination.</p> Aleksandra Pawlikowska-Gwiazda Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.009 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Square Grids in the Tomb of Akhethotep – Questions and Doubts https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.010 <p>The proportions of the human figure in Egyptian art were determined on the basis of simple and rarely changing rules. The oldest preserved guidelines used for this purpose come from the times of the Fifth Dynasty, and the square grids from the mid-Twelfth Dynasty. The objective of this article is to interpret the guidelines from the chapel of vizier Akhethotep, dated to the Fifth Dynasty, and answer the following questions: when were they made and what rules were used to determine the proportions of the vizier’s body? To do this, the author proposes employment of a measuring method which uses square grids as the main tool and the smallest element of the grid, that is, the square module as the basic measurement unit.</p> Krzysztof Radtke Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.010 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Temple of Millions of Years of the Pharaoh Thutmose III (Luxor). An Update on the Research https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.011 <p>This paper presents the most up to date discussion on the architecture of the temple of Millions of Years of Thutmose III, which has been investigated by the Spanish-Egyptian joint project since 2008. The first archaeological works took place at the site at the end of the nineteenth century and during the first decades of the twentieth century. Twelve seasons of the resumed research have brought, e.g. some completely new data concerning buildings related to the temple (i.e. the administrative building outside the southern enclosure wall, workshops north of the upper courtyard, and a house of the Ramesside priest called Khonsu at the northeast of the second courtyard), and allowed for the reconstruction of the course of the enclosure wall of the complex, as well as for some architectural restoration works. This paper also offers an overview through some of the most important finds collected so far during our research (e.g. fragments of reliefs, stelae and statues, inscribed and decorated lintels, foundation deposit, stoppers, ostraca, <em>graffiti</em>, and fragments of papyri) and presents the first results of their analysis: how these materials allow us to better understand the history and administration of the temple as well as what data they provide concerning the priests and the rituals which took place there.</p> Myriam Seco Álvarez, Javier Martínez Babón Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/EtudTrav.33.011 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100