Études et Travaux https://apcz.umk.pl/ET Rocznik naukowy Instytutu Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Polskiej Akademii Nauk poświęcony archeologii starożytnych i wczesnośredniowiecznych kultur Basenu Morza Śródziemnego, Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki północnej klasyfikowany na liście European Reference Index for Humanities (ERIH). Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Polskiej Akademii Nauk pl-PL Études et Travaux 2084-6762 Editorial https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37545 <p>The Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures, Polish Academy of Sciences, represented by one of its legal predecessors, the Research Centre for Mediterranean Archaeology of the Academy, was from the beginning of Polish excavations in Cyprus in 1965 involved in study, publication of finds and storage as well as processing of documentation of Polish research in Cyprus until 2019. The excavations were initiated by the first Director of the Research Centre at the Academy and the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Warsaw in Cairo (a foreign unit of the University), professor Kazimierz Michałowski.</p> Henryk Meyza Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 7–11 7–11 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.001 Adriatic Wine Amphorae in Nea Paphos https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37546 <p>The aim of this study is to present data on the amphorae and stoppers of Adriatic production coming from Cyprus, in particular from Nea Paphos. Three kinds of wine amphorae, Greco-Italic, Lamboglia 2 and Dressel 6A, closely related to each other due to a common element – a ceramic disk, which they were sealed with – appear in small amounts on sites from the late Hellenistic to the early Roman period. They are also attested at <em>Maloutena</em> in Nea Paphos. Analysis of these imports was carried out in order to define the quantity and variety of the material. The preliminary results were incorporated into the present paper.</p> Marta Bajlter Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 13–41 13–41 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.002 The Temple and Its Surroundings on Fabrika Hill, Paphos: Preliminary Results of the French-Polish Excavations (2018–2019) https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37547 <p>The field research conducted in Paphos in the framework of a joint project of the Université d’Avignon and the University of Warsaw focuses on the southern part of Fabrika hill with the aim to understand its role in the urban life of ancient Nea Paphos. Two seasons of the fieldwork (2018–2019) yielded evidence for the arrangement and chronology of a temple site of the Hellenistic and early Roman period. A preliminary exploration of underground chambers strongly suggests that they may have been a part of the same sacred area as the temple. Moreover, several burials as well as some walls and floors testify to the use of the site during the Byzantine and Medieval period.</p> Claire Balandier Jolanta Młynarczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 43–70 43–70 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.003 The Shell Motif in the Culture and Architecture of the Ancient Town of Marina el-Alamein in Egypt https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37548 <p>At the archaeological site of Marina el-Alamein in Egypt, many monuments and everyday objects feature motifs related to Aphrodite and her cult. One recurring theme is the seashell that lamps are often decorated with. In one case, it accompanies the depiction of the goddess herself. This article collects oil lamps with the image of a scallop shell from the research of the Polish-Egyptian Conservation Mission, as well as already published specimens from earlier archaeological research. It has been noted to date that this motif is one of the most common on lamps found in Marina el-Alamein. Shells also appear on architectural elements – in the finials of niches with a religious purpose, located in the main reception halls of houses. In such aediculae they are well exposed, but the use of shells does not arise from the shape of the architectural framing. Therefore, other reasons, possibly symbolic ones, for including this motif in decoration should be considered.</p> Grażyna Bąkowska-Czerner Rafał Czerner Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 71–91 71–91 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.004 ‘Hellenistic’ House in Nea Paphos, Cyprus – A First Summary of Its Architecture https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37549 <p>This paper presents preliminary observations and analyses of the architecture of the ‘Hellenistic’ House, an ancient residency from Roman times built in Nea Paphos on Cyprus. The House was erected as an extensive edifice around several courtyards of a very interesting architectural frame and rich decoration. Unfortunately, the residence was destroyed by an earthquake and afterwards rebuilt with new edifices, primarily the Villa of Theseus, and as such its remains are in a very poor state. However, the preserved fragments of walls, floors, technical infrastructure as well as pieces of architectural decoration permit the conducting of architectural studies of the residence’s layout, structure and functional arrangement.</p> Aleksandra Brzozowska-Jawornicka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 93–121 93–121 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.005 In Search of the Module in the Architectural Design of the ‘Hellenistic’ House in Nea Paphos, Cyprus https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37550 <p>Ancient Graeco-Roman architecture was designed with the application of mathematical harmony as a key compositional principle used in planning the dimensions and proportions of particular elements, larger parts of buildings or whole edifices. Therefore, application of metrology studies based on a cosine quantogram supports architectural analysis leading to an indication of the predominant stylistic influence on any particular building. Such a dual approach helps to establish the origins of the major artistic tradition in architectural design, especially of buildings excavated in a complex multicultural archaeological context. The aim of this paper is to determine the existence and nature of a module in the architectural decoration as well as in the general design of the ‘Hellenistic’ House, a spacious residence in Nea Paphos, Cyprus, erected in Roman times, but according to the artistic Ptolemaic tradition.</p> Aleksandra Brzozowska-Jawornicka Anna Kubicka-Sowińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 123–140 123–140 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.006 Kushite Stamp Impressions from Selib 2, Sudan https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37551 <p>More than two hundred sealings have been found since 2010 at Selib 2, a small Meroitic settlement in the Dongola Reach. This group come from the same context, in the S2/1/2010 storehouse and the most prominent building within the settlement. This paper focuses on selected impressions of thirty-one seals found on sealings and discusses them mainly in terms of iconography. Motifs from the sealings are both figural and non-figural. They reflect Meroitic beliefs, culture and politics. The catalogue and description of individual sealings, complete with photographs and drawings of stamp impressions, provide a firm base for preliminary observation regarding religion, symbols used by administrations and political propaganda, as well as allowing one to trace external influences and adaptation of foreign patterns.</p> Roksana Hajduga Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 141–166 141–166 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.007 Mapping Metal Rich Roman Cyprus: The Case for Object-Centred Approaches https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37552 <p>This paper makes the case for developing ongoing research on Roman Cyprus’s metal profile by integrating object-centred approaches. It does so by focusing on the British Museum’s Cypriot collection as it contains a significant number of metal artefacts. The paper opens with a brief overview of key ancient evidence and the impact of recent, multidisciplinary approaches before introducing the collection and the data assembled for this case study. Assessment of this body of evidence highlights the benefits of undertaking systematic study of metalware related to Cyprus. A museological approach that focuses on the materiality of objects will also demonstrate how lines of enquiry can be developed to enhance current investigations of mining, metallurgy, and metal consumption across the island as well as shed further light on the role and cultural value of metals. This has huge implications for the study of Roman Cyprus and the wider Roman Mediterranean.</p> Ersin Hussein Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 34 167–181 167–181 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.008 Villa of Theseus at Nea Paphos (Cyprus). Fourth–Early Fifth Century Numismatic Evidence for Architectural Transformations and Seismic Events https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37553 <p>This paper presents coins unearthed in three separate places at the Villa of Theseus at Nea Paphos (Cyprus). With just a few exceptions they date to the fourth–early fifth centuries AD. Even though only some specimens are precisely identifiable, they deserve presentation since they may suggest <em>termini post quem</em> for the reconstructions and enlargement of the Villa of Theseus. At the same time, the numismatic evidence helps to support the hypothesis that more than one earthquake occurred in the late Roman period at Nea Paphos and caused the destruction of its residences in the whole or in part of the area.</p> Barbara Lichocka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 183–206 183–206 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.009 Wall Paintings in Ancient Cyprus: The Hellenistic and Roman Tombs of Paphos and Its Region https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37554 <p>This paper presents the wall paintings decorating a number of Hellenistic and Roman tombs, of various architectural types, in Paphos and the region. The paper gathers together for the first time all the known published and unpublished painted tombs of the city, which are studied on the basis of observations made on the actual decoration preserved either <em>in situ</em> or in the laboratory of the Paphos District Museum, and with the use of all pertinent publications. A catalogue of these tombs has been created and this is accompanied by a map with the geographic location of each example. The various themes represented on wall paintings have been divided into groups and are discussed accordingly, while the manufacturing technology of a sample of the wall paintings is examined using both non-contact and analytical tools.</p> Vasiliki Lysandrou Demetrios Michaelides Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 207–253 207–253 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.010 A Weight of Seleucia in Pieria in Nea Paphos https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37555 <p>Archaeological excavations carried out by a mission from the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology on the site of the agora of Nea Paphos in Cyprus brought to light a lead weight with a Greek inscription giving the year 251 of an era and mentioning an agoranomos with the name Seleukos. On the basis of parallels, the author demonstrates that the weight must have been issued by the North Syrian city of Seleucia in Pieria, and the era used in the inscription is the civic era of Seleucia with the starting point in 109/108 BC, which allows one to date the object to AD 142/143. He argues that the structure where the object was found can tentatively be identified as agoranomeion of Nea Paphos.</p> Adam Łajtar Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 255–263 255–263 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.011 Ancient Portrait Busts of Marcus Aurelius in the National Museum in Poznań https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37556 <p>The article addresses the collection of Roman portrait busts in the National Museum in Poznań, Poland. The paper focuses on three busts attributed to Marcus Aurelius as an example of durable adaptations and modifications of the originals. It aims to explain frequent misconceptions and interpretations of the sculptures by exploring history and conservation practices.</p> Diana Mroczek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 265–286 265–286 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.012 Pyla-Vigla: A Case Study Assessing the Imperial Strategies of the Hellenistic Diadochoi in Cyprus https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37557 <p>The aim of the present study is to examine the mechanisms the Diadochoi implemented to gain and maintain control over Cyprus using Pyla-<em>Vigla</em>, a recently discovered fortified garrison, as a case study. Alexander the Great’s successors faced a seemingly insurmountable problem: How does one govern, control, and maintain the largest territorial empire the world had ever seen? Alexander’s imperial strategy was predicated upon maintaining native governing institutions of newly subjugated lands and appointing new leaders. This system could not work for the Diadochoi because without a clear path to succession, a twenty-nine-year period of incessant conflict ensued throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. The surviving successors adopted various strategies to exercise imperial authority over their rivals, which ultimately led to the creation of three ruling Hellenistic dynasties: Ptolemies, Seleucids, and Antigonids. Pyla-<em>Vigla </em>represents one of many such strategies.</p> Brandon R. Olson R. Scott Moore Thomas Landvatter Justin Stephens Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 287–306 287–306 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.013 Colonnaded Hall in Kourion: How the Oecus Corinthius Was Interpreted in the Roman Houses of Cyprus https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37558 <p>This contribution analyses the architecture of the public reception area of a house in Kourion, on the southern coast of Cyprus. Known as the Early Christian House due to the discovery of a later phase, characterised above all by mosaics, the house, which is only partially excavated, boasts architectural features that date back to the Hellenistic era. These sprang from official Alexandrian models that subsequently spread across the Mediterranean. In territories such as Cyprus, where ties with the Ptolemaic Kingdom were close, this new form of architectural expression continued to flourish, with transformations and elements of innovation, even during the Imperial Age. In the Early Christian House this phenomenon is particularly evident in a colonnaded room in which the model defined by Vitruvius, the <em>Oecus Corinthius</em> appears. In this particular instance, the style is embellished with the use of simplified capitals and angular heart-shaped pillars of the Doric order. The architectural elements of the house are analysed here in order to provide a stylistic and chronological framework what contribute to the reconstruction of the history of the early Imperial phase of the building.</p> Patrizio Pensabene Eleonora Gasparini Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 307–340 307–340 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.014 Adopting Roman Habits – The Baths in the House of Orpheus in Nea Paphos as a ‘Troublesome’ Case Study? https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37559 <p>The House of Orpheus at Nea Paphos in Cyprus, a multiphase residential complex excavated a few decades ago, is the subject of an on-going study within the framework of a new project. Recently, the bath suite in the north-eastern part of the house was analysed in detail and this has led to a better understanding of the baths’ layout and technology (such as the water management and heating system), features that confirm the adoption of the western/Italian model, while some of the details remained typical of the Eastern Mediterranean.</p> Monika Rekowska Demetrios Michaelides Skevi Christodoulou Jakub Kaniszewski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 341–362 341–362 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.015 Terracotta Pipelines at Maloutena: Remarks on the Water System in the Residential District of Ancient Nea Paphos, Cyprus https://apcz.umk.pl/ET/article/view/37560 <p>This paper presents the results of studies on the ancient terracotta pipelines discovered during excavations conducted since 1965 by the Polish Archaeological Mission of the University of Warsaw in the so-called <em>Maloutena</em> area, the residential district of the Hellenistic-Roman capital of Cyprus, Nea Paphos. The pipelines were examined in terms of the pipe types they were composed of, their construction and maintenance aspects, chronology, function and structural interrelations to recognise the role they played in the water management system of <em>Maloutena</em> and Nea Paphos over time.</p> Marcin M. Romaniuk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN and the Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 363–405 363–405 10.12775/EtudTrav.34.016