Wojna i pamięć. Pierwsza wojna światowa i jej upamiętnianie przez Amerykanów

Halina Parafianowicz

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/DN.2017.2.09


Celem artykułu jest pokazanie stosunku Amerykanów do I wojny światowej i rytuałów oraz sposobów upamiętniania poległych żołnierzy. Dużą rolę w kreowaniu pamięci zbiorowej o Great War odegrali wojskowi i weterani, m.in. poprzez utrwalenie żołnierskiej narracji o wojnie (soldier’s story), rytuały podczas dorocznych uroczystości (Memorial Day i Veterans Day), jak również ceremonie w trakcie ponownych pochówków sprowadzanych z Europy tysięcy towarzyszy broni.


The purpose of the article is to present the attitude of Americans towards the First World War, and the rituals and ways to commemorate the soldiers fallen in the Great War. An important role in the creation of collective memory about the Great War was played by soldiers and veterans, among others through the preservation of soldier’s story, rituals during the annual celebrations of the Memorial Day and Veterans Day, and also the ceremonies of reburials of thousands of soldiers’ bodies repatriated from Europe.

Słowa kluczowe

I wojna światowa; USA; pamięć; weterani; pomniki

Pełny tekst:



Applegate Krouse S., North American Indians in the Great War, photographs and original documentation by J.K. Dixon, Lincoln 2007.

Axelrod A., Selling the Great War. The Making of American Propaganda, New York 2009.

Britten Th.A., American Indians in World War I. At Home and at War, Albuquerque 1997.

Budreau L., Bodies of War. World War I and the Politics of Commemoration in America, 1919–1933, New York 2010.

Carroll A., My Fellow Soldiers. General John Pershing and the American Who Helped Win the Great War, New York 2017.

Dalessandro R.J. et al., Willing Patriots. Men of Color in the First World War, Atglen 2009. Day Before Yesterday. The Reminiscences of Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt Jr., New York 1959.

Edwards P.J., A War Remembered. Commemoration, Battlefield Tourism and British Collective Memory of the Great War, Brighton 2004.

Ferrell R.H., America’s Deadliest Battle. Meuse-Argonne, 1918, Lawrence 2007.

First World War Nursing. New Perspectives, ed. A.S. Fell, Ch.E. Hallett, New York 2013. Fussell P., The Great War and Modern Memory, Oxford 2013.

Gavin L., American Women in World War I. They Also Served, Niwot 1997. Graham J.W., The Gold Star Mother Pilgrimages of the 1930s, Jefferson 2005.

Hanson N., Unknown Soldiers. The Story of the Missing of the First World War, New York 2006.

Hollywood’s World War I. Motion Picture Images, ed. P.C. Rollins, J.E. O’Connor, Bowling Green 1997.

In Flanders Fields 100 Year. Writing on War, Loss and Remembrance, ed. A. Betts, New York 2015.

Jensen K., Mobilizing Minerva. American Women in the First World War, Urbana 2008.

Jones P., The Fires of Patriotism. Alaskans in the Days of the First World War, Fairbanks 2013.

Keene J.D., Doughboys, the Great War, and Remaking of America, Baltimore 2001.

Keene J.D., The Memory of the Great War in the African American Community, w: Unknown Soldiers. The American Expeditionary Forces in Memory and Remembrance, ed. M.A. Snell, Kent 2008, s. 60–78.

Krass P., Portrait of War. The U.S. Army’s First Combat Artists and the Doughboy’s Experience in WWI, Hoboken 2007.

Lentz-Smith A., Freedom Struggles. African Americans and World War I, Cambridge 2009.

Levitch M., The Great War Re-Remembered. The Fragmentation of the World’s Largest Painting, w: Matters of Conflict. Material Culture, Memory and the First World War, ed. N.J. Saunders, London–New York 2004.

Lloyd D.W., Battlefield Tourism. Pilgrimage and the Commemoration of the Great Britain, Australia, and Canada, 1919–1939, Oxford–New York 1998.

Malone Kingsbury C., For Home and Country. World War I Propaganda on the Home Front, Lincoln 2010.

Mayo J., War Memorials as Political Landscape. The American Experience and Beyond, New York 1988.

Meigs M., Optimism at Armageddon. Voices of American Participants in the First World War, London 1997.

Mjagkij N., Loyalty in Time of Trial. The African American Experience during World War I, Lanham–Boulder 2011.

Mosse G.L., Fallen Soldiers. Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, New York 1990.

Parafianowicz H., Pierwsza wojna światowa w nowszej amerykańskiej literaturze przedmiotu, „Dzieje Najnowsze” R. XLVI, 2014, nr 3, s. 101–120.

Pencak W., For God and Country. The American Legion, 1919–1941, Boston 1989.

Picture This. World War I Posters and Visual Culture, ed. P. James, Lincoln 2010.

Piehler G.K., Remembering the War to End All Wars, w: Unknown Soldiers. The American Expeditionary Forces in Memory and Remembrance, ed. M.A. Snell, Kent 2008, s. 46–48.

Piehler G.K., Remembering War the American Way, Washington 1995.

Piehler G.K., The War Dead and Gold Star. American Commemoration of the First Word War, w: Commemorations. The Politics of National Identity, ed. J.R. Gillis, Princeton 1994, s. 168–177.

Rawls W., Wake Up, America! World War I and the American Poster, New York 1988.

Rosier P.C., Serving Their Country. American Indian Politics and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge 2009.

Rumer T.A., The American Legion. An Official History, 1919–1989, New York 1990.

Shafer Ch., The Second A.E.F. The Pilgrimage of the Army of Remembrance, New York 1927.

Snell M.A., „The Price Was Made and the Price Was Paid”. Grandpa’s Scar and Other Memories of the AEF, w: Unknown Soldiers. The American Expeditionary Forces in Memory and Remembrance, ed. M.A. Snell, Kent 2008, s. 3–27.

Trout S., On the Battlefield of Memory. The First World War and American Remembrance, 1919–1941, Tuscaloosa 2010.

Weatherford D., A History of the American Suffragist Movement, Santa Barbara 1998. Williams D., Media, Memory, and the First World War, Montreal–Ithaca 2009.

Wingate J., Sculpting Doughboys. Memory, Gender, and Taste in America’s World War I Memorials, Farnham 2013.

Winter J., Remembering War. The Great War between Memory and History in the Twentieth Century, New Haven 2006.

Winter J., Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. The Great War in European Cultural History, Cambridge 1995.

World War I and America. Told by the Americans Who Lived It, ed. A. Scott Berg, New York 2017.

Zeiger S., In Uncle Sam’s Service, Women Workers with the American Expeditionary Forces, 1917–1919, Ithaca 1999.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism