Ukrainian Language in Educational Institutions of the USSR: 1960s–1970s
Słowa kluczoweUkrainian language, educational institutions, educational space, Ukrainian intelligentsia, opposition, totalitarian regime, Soviet power, Russification, denationalization
This article examines the position of the Ukrainian language in educational institutions of the USSR during the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century. It is shown that the Soviet government actively implemented the policy of Russification, the aim of which was the complete destruction of the national-educational space of Ukrainians. Numerous decisions and resolutions of the country’s top party leadership have laid a solid foundation for the introduction of Russian as the language of interethnic communication. In the field of education, the ideologues of communism tried to shift the emphasis from the national characteristics of Ukrainians to the “common” for all – the Soviet ones. Oppression of the native language has caused alarm among the Ukrainian public. Realizing that the Ukrainian language is the basis for the preservation and development of the Ukrainian nation, the Ukrainian intelligentsia led the movement to protect it. Disagreeing with Russification, Ukrainians used all possible forms of protest against it at the time. It came to the formation of open opposition to Khrushchev’s educational reform. Many letters were received by various levels of government, newspapers, and magazines from various publishers, whose authors were concerned about the unequal position of the Russian and Ukrainian languages and expressed their indignation at the functioning of a large number of Russian-language educational institutions. Ukrainians were encouraged to spread the Ukrainian language and take care of its further development, thus seeking to preserve their own national identity. And the Ukrainian language continued to live and develop in the thick of the masses.
Bazhan, O.G. (2008). Growing Resistance to the Policy of Russification in the Ukrainian SSR in the Second Half of the 1950s–1960s. Ukrainian Historical Journal, 5, 147–159.
Brehunets, N.S. (2006). Educational Institutions of Ukraine in 50–80-ies of the Twentieth Century: Historiography. Dissertation of the Candidate of Historical Sciences: 07.00.06. Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky. 185 p.
Certificates of the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CP of Ukraine, Resolutions , Letters of the Regional Committees of the CP of Ukraine Department of Science and Culture of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, Resolutions of the Letter of the Regional Committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Other Organizations – on the State of Educational Work in Higher Educational Institutions (6.01–15.08.1961). (1961). Central State Archive of Public Associations of Ukraine. Fund 1. Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (1917–1991). Description 24. Case 5295. 56 p.
Consolidated Statistical Report on the Work of Graduate Schools of the USSR in 1975. (1975). Central State Archive of the Highest Authorities and Administration of Ukraine. Fund R-4621. Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the Ukrainian SSR (1959–1991). Description 13. Case 3331. 29 p.
Cultural Construction in the Ukrainian SSR: The Most Important Decisions of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government of 1917–1960. (1961). A Collection of Documents in 2 Volumes. Vol. 2 (June 1941–1960). Kyiv: Derzhpolitvydav. 664 p.
Dziuba, I. (1998). Internationalism or Russification. Kyiv: Academy.
Galaychak, T. (1996). Cultural Life in Ukraine. Western Lands: Documents and Materials. Vol. 2: 1953–1966. Lviv: NAS of Ukraine, I. Krypyakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
Gritsenko, M.S. (1958). Development of the Soviet School in Ukraine. Kyiv.
Gunchak, T., & Solchanik, R. (1983). Ukrainian Socio-Political Thought in the Twentieth Century. Documents and Materials in 3 Volumes. Vol. 3. Munich: Modernity.
Ivanchenko, R.P. (1996). History without Myths: Conversations on the History of Ukrainian Statehood. Kyiv: MAUP.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2014). Narrowing of the Ukrainian Language in the Late 1950s – During the First Half of the 1960s. Notes of the Faculty of History, 25, 145–152.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2015a). The Acceleration of the Ukrainians’ Assimilation due to Deliberate Narrowing of the Ukrainian Language: 60s–70s of the XXth Century. Torun International Studies, 3(8), 61–69.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2015b). The State of Ukrainian Schools in Odessa and Odessa Region in the 60’s of the XX Century. In: G.I. Goncharuk (Ed.), Kochubiev – Hadzhibey – Odessa: Materials of the First All-Ukrainian Scientific Conference on the 600th Anniversary of the City, May 28–29, 2015 (рp. 62–65). Odessa: Polytechnic Periodical.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2016a). National Enslavement of Ukrainians in the Conditions of Russification of the Linguistic and Cultural Space of the USSR: 60s–70s of the XX Century. East, 2, 48–53.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2016b). Eradication of the National Element from the Life of the Ukrainian Ethnic Environment as a Result of the Russification of the Cultural and Educational Environment of the USSR: The First Half of the 1960s. Intelligentsia and Power: A Collection of Scientific Papers. Series: History, 35, 90–102.
Kindrachuk, N.M. (2017). Policy of Russification in the USSR and Its Impact on the Situation of Ukrainian Schools: The 1960s–1970s. In: O.Y. Vysotsky (Ed.), Ukraine in Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Dimensions: Proceedings of the Second All-Ukrainian Scientific Conference. March 24–25, 2017 (pp. 155–156). Dnipro: Okhotnik Company.
Kozyatsky, B. (1995). Destruction of the Ukrainian Language by the Oppressors of Ukraine. All-Ukrainian Human Rights Newspaper, 3, 2.
Panibudlaska, V.F. (1972). Soviet People – A New Historical Community of People. Ukrainian Historical Journal, 1, 14–25.
Rozhko, V. (1983). In the Cohort of Dissidents of Volyn. Dubrovytsia Herald. January 2, 2.
Rules of Admission to Higher Educational Institutions of the USSR. (1973). Bulletin of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, 4, 8.
Sergiychuk, O. (2002). Language Situation in Higher Educational Institutions of Ukraine (1955–1965). Ethnic History of the Peoples of Europe, 6, 4–8.
Shevchuk, J. (2001). Language Policy in Ukraine (Late 50s – Early 90s of the Twentieth Century). Abstract of the Dissertation of the Candidate of Historical Sciences: 07.00.01. Kharkiv. 20 p.
Svorak, S. (1998). Public Education in the Western Ukrainian Region: History and Ethnopolitics (1944–1964). Kyiv: Pravda Yaroslavychiv.
Svorak, S. (1999). Secondary School of the Western Ukrainian Region in the Context of Socio-Political Life of the Second Half of the 40s – First Half of the 60s of the Twentieth Century. Dissertation of Doctor of Historical Sciences: 07.00.01. Kyiv. 386 p.
Tevikova, O.V. (2010). Everyday Life of Citizens of the USSR: Social and Cultural Aspects (1953–1964). Dissertation of the Candidate of Historical Sciences: 07.00.01. Poltava. 305 p.
The Law on Strengthening the Connection between School and Life and Further Development of the Public Education System of the USSR, Adopted on December 24, 1958. (1959). Bulletin of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 1, 10–22.
Yarmolenko, M. (2013). Language Policy in the USSR in the 40–80s of the Twentieth Century. Scientific Notes of I.F. Kuras Institute of Political and Ethnonational Studies of NAS of Ukraine, 3, 365–377.
Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Nadia Kindrachuk
Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa – Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe.
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu respektuje prawo do prywatności i ochrony danych osobowych autorów.
Dane autorów nie są wykorzystywane w celach handlowych i marketingowych. Redaktorzy i recenzenci są zobowiązani do zachowania w poufności wszelkich informacji związanych ze złożonymi do redakcji tekstami.
Autor, zgłaszając swój tekst wyraża zgodę na wszystkie warunki i zapisy umowy licencyjnej (określającej prawa autorskie) z Uniwersytetem Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu.
Liczba wyświetleń i pobrań: 295
Liczba cytowań: 0