Federalizacja czy rozpad? Stosunki Stanów Zjednoczonych i Austro–Węgier w ostatnim roku pierwszej wojny światowej
Słowa kluczowepierwsza wojna światowa, Austro–Węgry, Stany Zjednoczone, rozpad monarchii
AbstraktFederalization or Dissolution? The Relations of the USA and Austria–Hungary in the Last Year of the First World War
The United States of America played an undeniably pivotal role during the dissolution of Austria–Hungary. This article demonstrates the fact that President Wodrow Wilson was, until the last months of the war, hesitant to support the dissolution of Austria–Hungary. He gradually changed his standpoint over the spring and summer of 1918. It also proves that the Secretary of State Robert Lansing had a major effect on the President’s decision making. In contrast, the secret Peace Inquiry Bureau, or the group of experts named The Inquiry, established by Colonel House with the aim of tackling the issues of peace settlement, lacked inner coherence in terms of the future of Austria–Hungary after the war. The group’s representatives were long in favor of federalization, rather than of the empire’s dissolution. The article also largely examines Austro–Hungarian policy toward the USA, which to this day has not been thoroughly studied in specialized literature. Yet, before the spring of 1918 and to a certain extent even later, Vienna regarded the USA as a possible partner in its efforts to conclude peace. Studying Austro–Hungarian sources, the article analyzes in detail the development of Austro–Hungarian policy, which lacked a unified theme. In this respect, the article also mentions the devastating effect of the Sixtus Affair (April 1918) on the reputation of Austria– Hungary in the USA. Another conclusion of this article is the findings that in Austria–Hungary in the spring and summer of 1918, surprisingly scarce attention was paid to the US policy vis–à– vis Central Europe. President Wilson had not envisaged dissolution of the Hapsburg monarchy at the end of the war. In spite of his one statement from December 1914, the dissolution of Austria–Hungary was not in his plans. After Emperor Charles came to the throne (November 1916), Wilson and Lansing struggled to drive a wedge among the Central Powers and therefore carefully distinguished among them. While Lansing could not rule out the possibility that Austria–Hungary would escape the influence of Germany and would withdraw from the war, as time proceeded, he grew increasingly skeptical. His reservation was based on the widely accepted opinion that the monarchy was Germany’s vassal. As this article proofs, Austria–Hungary was not utterly dependent on Germany, contrary to statements made by various US officials including Wilson, the Emperor’s reputation was damaged by the Sixtus Affair in the spring of 1918. Similarly, with regard to the dangerous German offensive, a growing number of voices in the US administration called for the support of the claims of the exile representatives of the monarchy’s nations. Gradually, the space for differentiating between Austria–Hungary and Germany vanished. The United States had become convinced of the monarchy’s total dependence on Berlin and resolved for its dissolution.
Ambrosius L. E., Woodrow Wilson and His Legacy in American Foreign Relations, New York 2002.
Bridge F. R., The Habsburg Monarchy Among the Great Powers, 1815–1918, New York–Oxford– Munich 1990.
CalhounF. S., Uses of Force and Wilsonian Foreign Policy, Kent, Ohio 1993. ClementsK. A., The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson, Lawrence 1992.
Cornwall M., The Undermining of Austria–Hungary. The Battle of Minds, Houndmills 2000. Feigl E., Kaiser Karl I. Ein Leben für den Frieden seiner Völker, Wien 1990.
Ferrell R. H., Woodrow Wilson and World War I, 1917–1921, New York 1985. Galandauer J., Karel I. Poslední český kraal, Praha 2004.
Hecksher A., Woodrow Wilson. A Biography, New York 1991.
Horčička V., Austria–Hungary, Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, and the United States´ Entrance into the First World War, „International History Review” 2012, t. XXXIV, nr 2, s. 245–269.
Horčička V., On the Brink of War: The Crisis Year of 1915 in Relations Between the USA and Austria–Hungary, „Diplomacy & Statecraft” 2008, t. XIX, nr 2, s. 187–209.
Horčička V., Rakousko–uherská politika vůči sovětskému Rusku v letech 1917–1918 [Austro– węgierska polityka wobec Rosji Radzieckiej w latach 1917–1918], Praha 2005.
Knock Th. J., To End All Wars. Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order, New York–Oxford 1992.
Pichlík K., Bez legend. Zahraniční odboj 1914–1918. Zápas o československý program, Praha 1991.
Rauchensteiner M., Der Tod des Doppeladlers: Österreich–Ungarn und der Erste Weltkrieg, wyd. II, Graz–Wien–Köln 1994.
Steigerwald D., Wilsonian Idealism in America, Ithaca–London 1994.
Županič J., Rakousko–Uhersko a polská otázka za první světové války, Praha 2006.
Liczba wyświetleń i pobrań: 305
Liczba cytowań: 0