Morphological and Functional Effects of the Resistance Training and High Physical Activity of Recreational Type in Young Men

Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz, Aleksandra Stachoń, Justyna Andrzejewska



The influence of different types of physical activity on body composition, muscle function, bones and joints is indisputable. It also shapes physical efficiency in different periods of ontogenesis. The aim of this research was to evaluate the morphological and functional effects of the resistance training used by amateur bodybuilders, with reference to subjects declaring high physical activity of different type performed as recreation. Research data was taken from the measurement of 31 amateur bodybuilders and 33 students attending the University School of Physical Education, who declared high physical activity of recreational type. The age of the subjects ranged from 21 to 24 years old. The anthropometric features were examined. Fat mass was assessed on the basis on the skinfolds thickness. The level of three body build components: endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy were determined with used of Sheldon method. In order to compute static strength in forearm muscles, researchers measured the handgrip of right and left hands. The examined group of students and bodybuilders did not reveal any statistically significant differences in mean body height and components, e.g. length of trunk and lower limbs. However, observable differences were recorded in reference to body mass, which was higher for the group of bodybuilders. The bodybuilders were characterised by significantly wider shoulders and chest. Also, the values of wrist and knee bone breadth were higher in comparison to the group of students. The two groups differed distinctly in muscle development within the upper trunk area, shoulder girdle and upper limbs. Endomorphy and mesomorphy obtained higher values in bodybuilders, while in students they were characterised by greater body slenderness. Handgrip strength was significantly higher for bodybuilders. The research confirmed that both recreational physical activities (jogging, swimming, cycling) and resistance training have a positive influence on the correct body composition and improvement of respiratory and strength capabilities.


amateur bodybuilders; students; anthropometric measurements; functional features

Full Text:



Deschenes MR, Kraemer WJ. Performance and physiologic adaptations to resistance training. Am J PhysMed Rehabil, 2002; 81(11): 3-16[]

Slater G, Phillips SM. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding. J Sport Sci, 2011; 29(Suppl. 1): 67-77[]

Lantz CD, Rhea DJ, Cornelius AE. Muscle Dysmorphia in Elite-Level Power Lifters and Bodybuilders: A Test of Differences Within a Conceptual Model. J Strength CondRes, 2002; 16(4): 649-655

Ogita S. The Effects of Body Composition Differences on Placement at Bodybuilding Competition Among Male Amateur Bodybuilders. Research Papers, Paper 26. Southern Illinois University Carbondale; 2010

Lohman TG. Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness: A review. Hum Biol, 1981; 53: 181-225

Sinning W.E. Body composition in Athletes. [in: ] eds: Roche A, Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG. Human Body composition, Human Kinetics; 1996

Carter JEL, Heath BH. Somatotyping- development and applications. Cambridge Studies in BiologicalAnthropology, Cambridge University Press 5; 1990

Gohlke H, Gohlke-Barwolf C. Cardiac rehabilitation: where are we going? Eur Heart Journal 1998; 19: 1004-1010[]

Pollock ML, Franklin BA, Balady GJ et al. Resistance Exercise in Individuals With and Without Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation, 2000; 101: 828-833 []

McDermott MM, Ades P, Guralnik JM et al. Treadmill Exercise and Resistance Training in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease With and Without Intermittent Claudication. A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 2009; 301(2): 165-174 []

Mishchenko W, Sawczyn S, Zasada M et al. Effects of the resistance training of inspiratory muscles during the health related program of exercises on aerobic working capacity in young women. Medical and Biological Sciences, 2011, 25(3): 51-58

Faigenbaum A.D. Resistance Training for Children and Adolescents: Are There Health Outcomes? AmericanJournal of lifestyle medicine (AJLM), 2007; 1: 190-200

Huygens W, Claessens AL, Thomis M et al. Body composition estimations by BIA versus anthropometric equations in body builers and other power athletes. JSports Med Phys Fitness, 2002; 42(1): 45-55

Carr GA eds: Mechanics of sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 1997

Imran M, Hussain I, Murtaza ST et al. A Comparative Study of Body Builders and Weight Lifters on Somatotypes. Journal of Education and Practice, 2011; 2(3): 155-160

Fry AC, Ryan AJ, Schwab RJ et al.. Anthropometric characteristics as discriminators of body building success. J Sport Sci, 1991; 9(1): 23-32[]

Jürimäe J, Abernethy PJ, Quigley BM et al. Differences in muscle contractile characteristics among bodybuilders, endurance trainers and control subjects. Eur J ApplPhysiol, 1997; 75: 357-362

Yarnell JW, Patterson CC, Thomas HF et al. Central obesity: predictive value of skinfold measurements subsequent ischaemic heart disease at 14 years follow-up in Caerphilly Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2001; 25: 1546-1549

Koh-Banerjee P, Wang Y, Hu FB et al. Changes in body weight and body fat distribution as risk factors for clinical diabetes in US men. Am J Epidemiol, 2004; 159: 1150-1159

Sterkowicz-Przybycień KL, Sterkowicz S, Żarów RT. Somatotype, Body Composition and Proportionality in Polish Top Greco-Roman Wrestlers. J Hum Kinet, 2011; 28: 141-154

Charzewski J, Głaz A, Kuźnicki S. Somatotype characteristics of elite European wrestlers. Biol Sport, 1991; 8(4): 213-221

Franchini E, Takito MY, Kiss MA et al. Physical fitness and anthropometrical differences between elite and nonelite judo players. Biol Sport, 2005; 22(4): 315-328

Tan B. Manipulating Resistance Training Program Variables to Optimize Maximum Strength in Men: A Review. J Strength Cond Res, 1999; 13(3): 289-304[]

Burr D.B. Muscle Strength, Bone Mass, and Age-Related Bone Loss. J Bone Miner Res, 1997; 12(10): 1547-1551[]

Malarecki I. The relationship between some anthropological factors and sports performance. Br JSports Med, 1973; 7(1-2), 277-278[]

Zatsiorsky VM, Kraemer WJ. Science and practice ofstrength training. Champaign, Human Kinetics; 2006

Partnerzy platformy czasopism