Medical and Biological Sciences Quarterly "Medical and Biological Sciences" is a continuation of Annales Academiae Medicae Bydgostiensis that has been issued since 1985. It presents peer-reviewed scientific articles on medical issues. Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu en-US Medical and Biological Sciences 1734-591X Assessment of the cognitive functions in kayakers of the national team after a training cycle combined with whole body cryotherapy <p>Introduction. Using the Quick Mind Testing method, the efficiency of cognitive functions in kayakers after physical training combined with whole body cryotherapy was assessed.</p><p>Material and methods. The athletes (n = 17) performed the Quick Mind Testing on the first day and at the end of a 2-month training cycle, as well as before and after whole body cryotherapy conducted between the 5th and the 15th day of the cycle. Cryotherapy was administered twice a day, before and after training (20 sessions altogether). One cryotherapy session lasted 3 mins with the temperature gradually decreased from the initial -120<sup>o</sup>C to the final -145<sup>o</sup>C.</p><p>Results. After the training period, the kayakers committed approx. 2 times less incorrect Go and NoGo reactions, and approx. 12% more correct NoGo (p &lt; .004) reactions, as well as gave more correct answers in the ATTENTION test (p &lt; .004) than on the first day of training. After cryotherapy, as compared with the results obtained before the cryochamber stimulation, the kayakers gave more correct answers in the ATTENTION test.</p>Conclusions. Physical training combined with whole body cryotherapy increases the mental efficiency of kayakers, which may affect the efficiency of physical exercise. Beata Augustyńska Magdalena Żyła Andrzej Rakowski Mirosława Szark-Eckardt Mirosław Mrozkowiak Wioletta Łubkowska Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 30 4 5 11 10.12775/MBS.2016.028 The costs of endovascular in-hospital treatment of critical limb ischemia in patients who finally inderwent leg amputation. A one-center experience <p>Background.<strong> </strong>Currently, the average amputation free survival in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) amounts to 76% after one year of follow-up. Such poor prognosis raises the question: is revascularization in patients with CLI cost-effective? The aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of vascular care in patients with CLI.</p><p>The aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of vascular care in patients with CLI.</p><p>Patients and methods.<strong> </strong>A retrospective cost analysis of in-hospital endovascular treatment in 37 patients with CLI who underwent secondary leg amputation between January 2012 and June 2015.</p><p>Results.<strong> </strong>The average length of time between the first endovascular procedure due to CLI and leg amputation amounted to 214 days (range 8-1088 days). The total cost of hospitalizations before leg amputation amounted to 687 603.13 PLN, which is, on average, 18 583.87 PLN per patient, and 86.84 PLN per person per day for living with the preserved lower limb. The total costs associated with the patients who had undergone leg amputation amounted to 404 883.24 PLN, which is an average of 10 942.79 PLN per patient. Previous endovascular procedures accounted for 58.9% of this sum and 37.1% to total management costs for the patients.</p><p>Conclusions.<strong> </strong>The cost per day of endovascular treatment that makes it possible to live with two lower limbs did not exceed the established cost-effectiveness threshold. Lower limb amputation increases the costs of in-hospital patient care by 59%, represents financial wastage for the hospital, and incurs other costs not easily measured.</p> Jacek Budzyński Liliana Wnęk Wioletta Banaś Beata Czerniak Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-02-18 2017-02-18 30 4 13 17 10.12775/MBS.2016.029 Fat tissue content assessment in women population between 50 and 70 years of age <p>Nowadays obesity is one of the most important problems in the developed countries. It is characterized by the excess increase of fat tissue. The main causes of obesity are insufficient amount of physical activity and overdosing of energy delivered with food.</p><p>The purpose of this paper is the assessment of skinfold thickness and the percentage of fat tissue content in women between 50 and 80 years of age.</p><p>1215 female inhabitants of Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship participated in the study and were divided into <br /> 6 age groups in 5-year divisions. The skinfold thickness was assessed and the percentage of fat tissue content was calculated. The measurements were made with the skinfold caliper.</p>All tested women in the respective age groups, according to BMI index, were overweight, whereas the percentage of fat tissue content was over 40% in all groups. In 65-69 age bracket there is an increase of all tested parameters, whereas in women above 70 years of age a visible decrease of measured skinfold thickness values is observed as well as reduction of proportional fat tissue content. Andrzej Chęsy Gabriel Chęsy Wojciech Sikorski Andrzej Rakowski Paweł Rakowski Magdalena Kuśmierek Tomasz Zegarski Dariusz Soszyński Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-02-10 2017-02-10 30 4 19 24 10.12775/MBS.2016.030 Emotional condition of patients subjected to endovascular surgery due to chronić ischemia of the l ower limbs <p>Introduction. Emotional status of a patient who underwent a surgery is an important element in the recovery process. The aim of the study was to assess changes in positive and negative emotions in patients subjected to endovascular procedure due to chronic ischemia of the lower limbs and the determination of the factors affecting that process.</p><p>Materials and methods. 63 patients subjected to endovascular surgery due to chronic ischemia participated in the study. The study group included persons aged 46 to 87 (median 65 years). The following tools were used: a questionnaire on demographic and medical data, Larsen &amp; Diener Affect Intensity Measure Scale, modified Charles Carver's MiniCOPE (situational version) Inventory of coping with stress measurement, Berlin social support scale and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Medical data on the hospitalization time, type of anesthesia and the type of a surgery procedure was also used in the study.</p><p>Results.<strong> </strong>Statistically significant increase of the positive emotions intensity was observed in the studied group of patients Me=9 (min. 0, max. 23) before the surgery and Me=13 (min. 4, max. 27) after surgery and reduced level of negative emotions from Me=10 (min. 1, max. 24) to Me=3 (min. 0, max. 15).</p><p>Conclusions.<strong> </strong>In patients treated for chronic ischemia of the lower limbs an endovascular intervention (revascularization of lower limbs) decreased the negative emotions level and increased the positive ones. Health locus of control does not influence the emotional status change in the studied subjects. Patients with higher levels of perceived social, emotional and instrumental support are characterized by smaller increase of positive emotions intensity after endovascular surgery. Patients with lower levels of perceived instrumental support are characterized by smaller decrease of negative emotions intensity after endovascular surgery. Strategies used to cope with stress related to surgery do not affect the emotional condition change in persons subjected to endovascular surgery. Number of symptoms following endovascular surgery is a predictor of the level of negative emotions.</p> Beata Czerniak Jacek Budzyński Wioletta Banaś Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-02-17 2017-02-17 30 4 25 32 10.12775/MBS.2016.031 Communication in patients with disorders of consciousness – lessons learned From InteRDoCTor project <p>Thanks to recent advances in health care an increased number of patients may recover from severe brain injuries, but some of them are still assessed as non-responsive. Reliance on behavioural measures in communication with DoC patients seems be too prone to errors. There is need for solutions providing more objective attempts of bidirectional communication (intentional questions/commands and adequate related responses) in patients with DoC using significant processed by the patient stimuli and novel technologies (EEG-, fMRI-, BCI-based, etc.) based on recent scientific and clinical evidences. Such communication may be fulfilled even in the absence of behavior.</p><p>This article aims at assessment the extent to which current possibilities in the area of devices for extended communication has been exploited, including own experiences within InteRDoCTor project.</p> Jakub Komendziński Emilia Mikołajewska Dariusz Mikołajewski Beata Augustyńska Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-10 2017-03-10 30 4 33 42 10.12775/MBS.2016.032 Share of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnostic usefulness of selected markers. Part 1 Malfunctioning of environmental, immunologic or genetic mechanisms brings about a disorder of system homeostasis, which results in the development of diseases of arduous course. Inflammatory bowel diseases are a group of disorders which house a pathological inflammation of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It is postulated that one reason for the resulting changes may be free radical reactions. As a result of the ongoing inflammation under the course of the disease an influx of neutrophils into the lumen begins. Although endoscopic examination constitutes an irreplaceable method in the evaluation of the resulting changes, laboratory tests are an essential tool in the diagnostic process. In recent years it has been proven that the role of faecal calprotectin as a non-invasive test can be used to differentiate organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases, and evaluate remission or exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease [6,28]. It has also been noted that there is a need to seek other new markers that would facilitate the diagnosis. Daria Kupczyk Beata Augustyńska Grażyna Mierzwa Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-17 2017-03-17 30 4 43 48 10.12775/MBS.2016.033 Realization of the principles of rational nutrition by the universities of Bydgoszcz <p>The aim of this thesis was to evaluate if the students of universities of Bydgoszcz know the principles of proper nutrition and whether or not they follow them.</p><p>The study was conducted on a group of 100 students of the universities of Bydgoszcz, 77 women and 23 men between the ages of 19 and 25. The study was carried out in the first half of 2014 using a survey method.</p><p>Conclusions. Knowledge of rational nutrition and the principles of healthy eating among students of Bydgoszcz universities is quite varied and depends on the field of study. The best eating habits are characterized by technical and art faculties. Students of medical faculties and health sciences are not leaders in this field. More irregularities relating to the quality of diet is observed among students of humanities and social sciences.</p> Grażyna Mierzwa Katarzyna Wawrzyniak Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-10 2017-03-10 30 4 49 57 10.12775/MBS.2016.034 The epidemiology of breast cancer in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship in 2006-2010 <p>The analysis of the epidemiology of breast cancer in Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship in 2006 – 2010 in terms of the number of cases and deaths, and selected epidemiological indicators. Kujawsko-Pomorskie is the region with a great epidemiology risk in Poland. The number of cancers detected in this period was 4402, majority among the people between the ages of 50 and 69. 20% of cases were detected in cancer screening. The number of breast cancers detected in the pre-invasive stage is growing. The 5 year cure rate in the cases of breast cancer has risen.</p> Tomasz Mierzwa Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-15 2017-03-15 30 4 59 64 10.12775/MBS.2016.035 Role of mobility in cognitive development of children with motor deficyt – own observations of wheelchairs users <p>Wheelchair plays two important roles from the physical point of view: increased mobility and body support. Two main areas of children’ development: motor and cognitive are interrelated. Thus, wheelchair supported mobility in children may also prevent many severe problems in the area of social and cognitive development.</p><p>This paper aims at presentation of current state of the art and own concept concerning the role of the wheelchair-based mobility in cognitive development of children with motor deficit.</p> Emilia Mikołajewska Beata Augustyńska Dariusz Mikołajewski Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 30 4 65 70 10.12775/MBS.2016.036 High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cel transplantation rescue in children with neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma <p>Background. High-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell rescue has been recently applied in very-poor-risk pediatric solid tumors. Promising data have become available with the use of high-dose busulfan in neuroblastoma (NBL) and Ewing sarcoma (ES), and with high-dose treosulfan in ES. HDT approach resulted in an encouraging outcome without toxic mortality for high-risk patients.</p><p>Objective.<strong> </strong>The objective of this study is to present transplant outcomes, that is disease-free-survival and overall survival in children with high-risk NBL and ES undergoing auto-HSCT.</p><p>Patients and methods. A total number of 47 NBL and 20 ES auto-HSCT performed between 2004 and 2016 in a single transplant center were included in this analysis.</p><p>Results. Probability of 3-years pOS was 0.79±0.06 and 0.46±0.14 for NBL and ES patients, respectively. Relapse incidence at 3 years after HSCT was 0.37±0.08 and 0.26±0.11 for NBL and ES patients, respectively. The number of relapses at 3 years after HSCT was 15/47 in NBL and 6/20 in ES. Busulfan-based vs treosulfan-based conditioning in ES patients resulted in lower relapse and death rates. NBL and ES patients transplanted in complete remission (CR1) had lower relapse rates and lower death rates than patients at CR&gt;1.</p><p>Conclusion. Obtained results of auto-HSCT confirm the therapeutic benefit for children with NBL and ES. Recent reports on current practice of HSCT in Europe indicate HDT with auto-HSCT as a standard of care in pediatric patients with high risk or relapsed NBL and ES.</p> Jan Styczyński Robert Dębski Anna Krenska Krzysztof Czyżewski Mariusz Wysocki Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-15 2017-03-15 30 4 71 75 10.12775/MBS.2016.037 Review of research tools for assessment of performance of nursing staff <p>Managers willingly use performance as the key element in the motivation of employees, evaluation of their work, as well as an important indicator in the bonus system. The measurement of performance allows not only the explanation of the cause of the occurrence of a deviation in the efficiency of nurses’ work, but also facilitates the implementation of actions improving the quality of performance of occupational activities. </p>The objective of the study was analysis of literature concerning the structure and principles of the application of instruments used for the assessment of performance of nurses. The review of literature pertaining to the tools for the evaluation of efficiency of performance of nurses showed a large number of international reports; however, there is a total lack in the Polish literature. Analysis of literature allowed the formulation of the following conclusions: in Poland, there is a lack of studies concerning the measurement of performance of nurses. The performance of nurses should be measured by the tool which enables its evaluation in a multi-aspect context, and possesses a high reliability and validity. Marta Szara Anna Ksykiewicz-Dorota Jadwiga Klukow Copyright (c) 2017 Medical and Biological Sciences 2017-03-15 2017-03-15 30 4 77 85 10.12775/MBS.2016.038