LEADERSHIP EMPOWERMENT BEHAVIOUR, WORK ENGAGEMENT AND TURNOVER INTENTION: THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT

Sonja de Klerk, Marius W. Stander

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JPM.2014.018

Abstract


Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership empowerment behavior, psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention. The study further investigated whether psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between leadership empowerment behavior and turnover intention and work engagement respectively.

Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (N = 322). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test whether the measures of the constructs were consistent with the understanding of the nature of the constructs and to test whether the data fitted the hypothesized measurement model. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs.

Measuring instruments: The Leader Empowering Behavior Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention scales were administered.

Main findings: The results showed significant positive relationships between leadership empowerment behavior, psychological empowerment, work engagement and a negative correlation with turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behavior affected work engagement through psychological empowerment.

Practical implications: It is recommended that leadership discussions, training programs and individual coaching about leadership empowering behavior takes place.


Keywords


talent management; leadership empowerment behavior; psychological empowerment; work engagement; turnover intention; positive organizations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albrecht, L.S., Andreetta, M. (2011), “The influence of empowering leadership, empowerment and engagement on affective commitment and turnover intentions in community health service workers: Test of a model”, Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 228–237. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17511871111151126

Appelbaum, S.H., Hébert, D., Le Roux, S. (1999), “Empowerment: Power, culture and leadership - A strategy or fad for the millennium?”, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 11 No. 7, pp. 233–254. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665629910291929

Arnold, J.A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J.A., Drasgow, F. (2000), “The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 249–269. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200005)21:3%3C249::AID-JOB10%3E3.0.CO;2-%23

Ashford, O., Dieck, E. (2012), “A heightened interest in human capital as strategic asset”, available at: http://www.directorship.com/a-heightened-interest-in-human-capital-as-a-strategic-asset (accessed 22 July 2013).

Bakker, A.B., Bal, P.M. (2010), “Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 1, pp. 189–206. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317909X402596

Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W.B. (2008), “Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 147–154. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.515

Bhatnagar, J. (2007), “Talent management strategy of employee engagement in Indian ITES employees: Key to retention”, Employee Relations, Vol. 29 No. 6, pp. 640–663. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01425450710826122

Bhatnagar, J. (2012), “Management of innovation: Role of psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention in the Indian context”, Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 928–951. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.651313

Cameron.K., Mora, C., Leutscher, T., Calarco, M. (2011), “ Effects of Positive Practices on Organizational Efeectiveness”, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 47 No. 3, pp. 266-308. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886310395514

Cameron, K. (2008), Positive leadership: Strategies for extraordinary performance, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, Inc.

Cameron, K. (2013), Practising positive leadership: Tools and techniques that create extraordinary results, Berrett-Koehler, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

Carmeli, A., Weisberg, J. (2006), “Exploring turnover intentions among three professional groups of employees”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 191-206. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13678860600616305

Chen, G., Sharma, P.N., Edinger, S., Shapiro, D.L., Farh, J.L. (2011), “Motivating and demotivating forces in teams: Cross-level influences of empowering leadership and relationship conflict”. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96 No. 3, pp. 541–557. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021886

Conger, J.A., Kanungo, R.N. (1988), “The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 471–482. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/258093

De Poel, F.M., Stoker, J.I., Van der Zee, K.I. (2012), “Climate control? The relationship between leadership, climate for change, and work outcomes”, The International Journal of Human Resources Management, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 694–713. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.561228

De Villiers, J.R., Stander, M.W. (2011), “Psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention: The role of leader relations and role clarity in a financial institution”, Journal of Psychology in Africa, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 405–412.

De Vos, A.S. (Ed.), Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B., Delport, C.S.L. (2011), Research at grass roots: for the social sciences and human service profession, Van Schaik, Publishers, Pretoria, SA.

Dewettinck, K., Van Ameijde, M. (2011), “Linking leadership empowerment behavior to employee attitudes and behavioral intentions”, Personnel Review, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 284-305.

Druskat, V.U., Wheeler, J.V. (2003), “Managing from the boundary: The effective leadership of self-managing work teams”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 435–457. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/30040637

Du Plooy, J., Roodt, G. (2010), “Work engagement, burnout and related constructs as predictors of turnover intentions”, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 1–13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.910

Firth, L., Mellor, D.L., Moore, K.A., Loquet, C. (2004), “How can managers reduce employee intention to quit?”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 170–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940410526127

Forrester, R. (2000), “Empowerment: Rejuvenating a potent idea”, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 67–80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2000.4468067

Greasley, K., Bryman, A., Dainty, A., Price, A., Naismith, N., Soetanto, R. (2008), “Understanding empowerment from an employee perspective”, Team Performance Management, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 39–55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527590810860195

Gregory, B.T., Albritton, M.D., Osmonbekov, T. (2010), “The mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relationships between P-O fit, job satisfaction, and in-role performance”, Journal of Business Psychology, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 639–647. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9156-7

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. (2010), Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, Upper Saddle River, Pearson Education, New Jersey.

Hakimi, N., Van Knippenberg, D., Giessner, S. (2010), “Leader empowering behavior: The leader's perspective”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 701–716. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2010.00703.x

Hannah, S.T., Woolfolk, R.L., Lord, R.G. (2009), “Leader self-structure: A framework for positive leadership”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 30 No.2, pp. 269-290. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.586

Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., Hayes, T.L. (2002), “Business-unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87 No. 2, pp. 268–279. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268

Hayes, A.F. (2009), “Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium”, Communication Monographs, Vol. 76 No. 4, pp. 408–420.

Hempel, P.S., Zhang, Z., Han, Y. (2012), “Team empowerment and the organizational context: Decentralization and the contrasting effects of formalization”, Journal of Management, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 475–501.

IBM Corporation. (2012), “IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, version 21.0”, Armonk, NY, IBM Corporation. [computer software].

Kahn, W.A. (1990), “Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 692–724. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256287

Kahumuza, J., Schlechter, A.F. (2008), “Examining the direct and some mediated relationships between perceived support and intention to quit”, Management Dynamics, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 2–19.

Kanter, R.M. (1977), Men and women of the corporation, Basic Books, New York, NY.

Kelloway, E.K., Turner, N., Barling, J., Loughlin, C. (2012), “Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: The mediating role of employee trust in leadership”, Work and Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health and Organizations, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 39–55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.660774

Knight, R. (2011), “Employee engagement: A study of employee engagement at Topaz’s South Dublin region service stations”, Master’s Thesis, National College of Ireland, Dublin.

Konczak, L.J., Stelly, D.J., Trusty, M.L. (2000), “Defining and measuring empowerment leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp. 301−313.

Lawler, E.E., Mohrman, S.A., Benson, G. (2001), Organizing for high performance: Employee involvement, TQM, reengineering, and knowledge management in the Fortune 1000, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., Sparrowe, R.T. (2000), “An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85 No. 3, pp. 407–416. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407

Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M. (2007), “Emerging positive organizational behavior”, Journal of Management, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 321-349. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206307300814

Mathieu, J.E., Gilson, L.L., Ruddy, T.M. (2006), “Empowerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of an integrated model”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 91 No. 1, pp. 97–108. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.97

Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P. (2005), “Stress and burnout: The critical research”, in: Cooper, C.L. (Ed.), Handbook of stress medicine and health, CRC Press, London, UK, pp. 155-172.

Mendes, F., Stander, M.W. (2011), “Positive organisation: The role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention”, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 1–13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v38i1.900

Menon, S.T. (2001), “Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 153–180. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00052

Mills, M J., Fleck, C.R., Kozikowski, A. (2013), “Positive psychology at work: A conceptual review, state-of-practice assessment, and a look ahead”, The Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 153-164.

Muthén, B.O. (2010), “Bayesian Analysis in Mplus: A brief introduction”, Mplus Technical Report, available at: www.statmodel.com (accessed 22 July 2013).

Muthén, B.O., Muthén, L.K. (2004), Mplus, Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, CA [computer software].

Muthén, L.K., Muthén, B.O. (2013), Mplus user’s guide, Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, CA.

Park, J.S., Kim, T.H. (2009), “Do types of organisational culture matter in nurse job satisfaction and turnover intention?”, Leadership Health Services, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 20–38. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17511870910928001

Pearce, C.L., Sims, H.P. (2002), “Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors”, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 172–197. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.6.2.172

Preacher, K.J., Hayes, A.F. (2008), “Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models”, Behavior Research Methods, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 879–891. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

Quinn, R.E., Spreitzer, G.M. (1997), “The road to empowerment: Seven questions every leader should consider”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 37–49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(97)90004-8

Raub, S., Robert, C. (2010), “Differential effects of empowering leadership on in-role and extra-role employee behaviors: Exploring the role of psychological empowerment and power values”, Human Relations, Vol. 63 No. 11, pp. 1743–1770. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726710365092

Rothmann, S. (2010), The reliability and validity of measuring instruments of happiness in the Southern African context, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, SA.

Satorra, A., Bentler, P.M. (2010), “Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic”, Psychometrika, Vol. 75 No. 2, pp. 243–248. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11336-009-9135-y

Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. (2004), “Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 293–315. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schreiber, J.B. (2008), “Core reporting practices in structural equation modeling”, Administrative Pharmacy, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 83–97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2007.04.003

Seibert, S.E., Wang, G., Courtright, S.H. (2011), “Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: A meta-analytic review”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96 No. 5, pp. 981–1003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022676

Siong, Z.M.B., Mellor, D., Moore, K.A., Firth, L. (2006), “Predicting intention to quit in the call centre industry: Does the retail model fit?”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 231–243. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940610659579

Sjöberg, A., Sverke, M. (2000), “The interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on job turnover revisited: A note on the mediating role of turnover intention”, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 247–252.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9450.00194

Spreitzer, G.M. (1995), “Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38 No. 5, pp. 1442–1465. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2568665

Srivastava, A., Bartol, K.M., Locke, E.A. (2006), “Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 49 No. 6, pp. 1239–1251. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478718

Stander, M.W., Rothmann, S. (2010), “Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement”, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 1–8.

Steger, F.M., Littman-Ovadia, H., Miller, M., Menger, L., Rothmann, S. (2013), “Engaging in work even when it is meaningless: Positive affective disposition and meaningful work interact in relation to work-engagement”, Journal of Career Assessment, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 348–361. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072712471517

Thomas, K.W., Velthouse, B.A. (1990), “Cognitive elements of empowerment: An ‘interpretive’ model of intrinsic task motivation”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 666–681.

Van Dierendonck, D., Dijkstra, M. (2012), “The role of the follower in the relationship between empowering leadership and empowerment: A longitudinal investigation”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 1–20. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.01022.x

Van Schalkwyk, S., Du Toit, D.H., Bothma, A.S., Rothmann, S. (2010), “Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory”, South African Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 234–241.

Wallace, J.C., Johnson, P.D., Mathe, K., Paul, J. (2011), “Structural and psychological empowerment climates, performance, and the moderating role of shared felt accountability”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96 No. 4, pp. 840–850. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022227

Yukl, G.A., Becker, W.S. (2006), “Effective empowerment in organizations”, Organization Management Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 210-231. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/omj.2006.20

Zbierowski, P. (2011), “The positive potential of high performance organization”, Journal of Positive Management, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 94-108.

Zhang, X., Bartol, K.M. (2010), “Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation and creative process engagement”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53 No. 1, pp. 107–128. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.48037118








ISSN 2083-103X (print)
ISSN 2392-1412 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism